Main Article Content
Many public facilities in the United Kingdom are being closed without consideration to their users, leading to social exclusion. Hence, this study investigated the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in identifying public facilities which can be closed while saving cost and minimizing distance, using the libraries in Leicestershire as case study. Data for the study were obtained from secondary sources through the internet. This study used the location-allocation tool model, within the geographical information environment, to identify a set of libraries that should be closed in Leicestershire to save 20% cost and optimised for the needs of unemployed people, children of school age and pensioners (people over 65 years). Based on these considerations, the study identified the following ten libraries for closure: Barwell, Blaby, Cosby, Desford, Enderby, Groby, Hathern, Kirby Muxloe, Mounstsorrel and Sapcote. If this is adopted, it therefore means that the distance that users will need to travel from their homes to libraries in the new order would have been minimised and access not denied. This study has therefore demonstrated the use of GIS in decision making. This method is an innovation in the use of the model and should be used to evaluate library accessibility and identify those that could be closed without much negative impacts at the national level and for other facilities elsewhere.
Song BD, Morrison JR, Ko YD. Efficient location and allocation strategies for undesirable facilities considering their fundamental properties. Computers & Industrial Facilities. 2013;65:475-484.
Sin SJ, Kim K. Use and non-use of public libraries in the information age: A logistic regression analysis of household characteristics and library services variables. Library & Information Science Research. 2008;30:207–215.
D'Elia G. The roles of the public library in society: The results of a national survey. Final report. Urban Libraries Council, Evanston, IL; 1993.
Audunson RA. The public library as a meeting-place in a multicultural and digital context: The necessity of low-intensive meeting-places. Journal of Documentation. 2005;61:429−441.
Goulding A. A community forum: UK public libraries as meeting places. In Langeland, M. (ed.), Librarianship in the information age: Proceedings from the 13th BOBCATSSS-symposium. 2005;349−358.
Aabø S, Audunson R, Vårheim A. How do public libraries function as meeting places? Library & Information Science Research. 2010;32:16–26.
Bertot JC, McClure CR, Jaeger PT, Ryan J. Public libraries and the internet 2006: study results and findings; 2006.
Bishop AP, Tidline TJ, Shoemaker S, Salela P. Public libraries and networked information services in low-income communities. Library & Information Science Research. 1999;1: 361−390.
McCook KP, Geist P. Toward a just and productive society: An analysis of the recommendations of the white house conference on library and information services. Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Library and Information Science; 1994.
Hertel K, Sprague N. GIS and census data: Tools for library planning. Library Hi Tech. 2007;25: 246–259.
Flood A. UK lost more than 200 libraries in. The Guardian’ 2012.
Cabinet Office. The coalition: Our programme for government. London: Cabinet Office; 2010a.
Cabinet Office. Draft structural reform plan; 2010b.
Comber AJ, Brunsdon C, Radburn R. A spatial analysis of variations in health access: Linking geography, socio-economic status and access perceptions. International Journal of Health Geographies. 2011;10(44):1-11.
Comber A, Brunsdon C, Hardy J, Radburn R. Using a GIS-based network analysis and optimisation routines to evaluate service provision: A case study of the UK Post Office. Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy. 2009;2(1):47-64.
Hansen WG. How accessibility shapes land use. Journal of the American Planning Association. 1959;25(2):73–76.
Ingram DR. The concept of accessibility: A search for an operational form. Regional Studies. 1970;2:101–107.
Penchansky R, Thomas JW. The concept of access: Definition and relationship to consumer satisfaction. Medical Care. 1981;19(2):127–140.
Envail P. Accessibility planning: A chimera? Doctoral dissertation. University of Leeds, England; 2007.
Park SJ. Measuring public library accessibility: A case study using GIS. Library & Information Science Research. 2012;34:13-21.
Maroko AR, Maantay JA, Sohler NL, Grady KL, Arno PS. The complexities of measuring access to parks and physical activity sites in New York City: A quantitative and qualitative approach. International Journal of Health Geography. 2009;8:34.
Comber A, Brunsdon C, Green E. Using a GIS-based network analysis to determine urban greenspace accessibility for different ethics and religious groups. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2008;86: 103-114.
Hayes R, Palmer ES. The effects of distance upon use of libraries: Case studies based on a survey of users of the Los Angeles Public Library central library and branches. Library Research. 1983; 5:67–100.
Cole KJ, Gatrell AC. Public libraries in Salford: A geographical analysis of provision and access. Environment and Planning. 1986;18:253–268.
Hawkins AM. Geographical Information Systems (GIS): Their use as decision support tools in public libraries and the integration of GIS with other computer technology. New Library World. 1994; 95(7):4–13.
Koontz CM. Library facility siting and location handbook. Greenwood, Westport, CT; 1997.
Allen DW. GISTUTORIAL 2: spatial analysis workbook. Esri Press, New York; 2013.
Koontz CM, Jue DK, Bishop BW. Public library facility closure: An investigation of reasons for closure and effects on geographic market areas. Library & Information Science Research. 2009;31: 84–91.
Ghosh A, Craig CS. A location allocation model for facility planning in a competitive environment. Geographical Analysis. 1984; 16(1):40-51.
Hodgart RI. Optimising access to public services: A review of problems models and methods of locating central facilities. Progress in Human Geography. 1978;2:17-48.
Rahman S, Smith DK. Use of location-allocation models in health service development planning in developing nations. European Journal of Operational Research. 2000:123:437-452.
Tobler WR. A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region. Economic Geography. 1970;46:234–240.
Scott AJ. Combinational programming, spatial analysis and planning. Methuen, London; 1971.
Sheppard ES. A conceptual framework for dynamic location-allocation analysis. Environment and Planning. 1974;6:547-64.
Lea AC. A model taxonomy and a view of research frontiers in normative locational modeling. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Locational Decisions, Banff, Alberta; 1978.
Leonardi G. A unifying framework for public facility location problems-part 1: A critical overview and some unsolved problems. Environment and Planning. 1981;13:1001-1028.
Teitz MB, Bart P. Heuristic methods for estimating the generalized vertex median of weighted graph. Operations Research. 1968;16:955-961.
Toregas C, Revelle CS. Optimal location under time or distance constraints. Papers in Regional Science. 1996;28:133-143.
Revelle C, Church R. A spatial model for the locational construct of Teitz. Papers in Regional Science. 1977;39:129-35.
Zeller Achabel Brown. Market penetration and locational conflict in franchise systems. Decision Science. 1980;11:58-80.
Erkut E, Neman S. Analytical models for locating undesirable facilities. European Journal of Operational Research. 1989;40:275-291.
Martin D. Census output areas: From concept to prototype. Population Trends. 1998;94:19-24.
O’Sullivan D, Unwin DJ. Geographic information analysis. 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey; 2010.
Handley J, Pauleit S, Slim P, Ling C, Lindley S. Providing accessible natural greenspace in towns and cities: A practical guide to accessing the resource and implementing local standards for provision in Wales. Centre for Urban and Regional Ecology, School of Planning and Landscape, University of Manchester, Manchester; 2003.
Palmer ES. The effect of distance on public library use: A literature survey. Library Research. 1981;3(3):315-334.