Small Scales Dynamics Inferred from Tidal Measurements to Mitigate Daily Floodings in the City of Douala: A Case Study of the Besseke's Flood Drain

Main Article Content

Besack Felix
Onguene Raphael
Ebonji Seth Rodrigue
Oben Mbeng Lawrence
Kouandji Bekoumb Joseph Betsaleel
Sone Essoh Willy
Tomedi Eyango Minette

Abstract

The recently constructed Besseke’s flood drain is always filled with water due to individual or combined effect of the tide, urbanization drainage, underground plumes and precipitations runoffs. This study focused on the analysis of small scales dynamics inferred from short term tidal measurements to mitigate the daily flooding in the Besseke’s flood drain. The methodology used is based on field measurements observation. The sampling of water level was conducted during two (02) different tidal regimes in May 2019. The volume of brackish water moving in and out of the Besseke’s flood drain was calculated using the formula of O’Brien. The results showed that Spring conditions had greater amplitudes than Neap tide conditions. During Spring tides, the tidal prism that passed in the midsection of the Besseke’s flood drain (S4) was 3.5 × 101 m3. This means that only a negligible amount of the incoming brackish water reaches the Besseke’s flood drain, amplifies and causes the daily flooding. The unexpected stronger amplitudes and dynamics observed in S4 could be due to its sub estuary nature. Furthermore, the percentage composition of water in this section, showed that the fraction of brackish water changes from 85.7% during Spring tide to 77.8% in the Neap tide conditions. The overall spatial evolution revealed that, the trend in tidal prism (during Spring conditions) was (S0) > (S2) > (S1) > (S3) > (S4) with corresponding values of 2.1 × 104, 1.3 ×104, 1.0 × 104, 2.5 × 102 and 3.5 × 101 m3 respectively. Finally, Tidal prism and Cross-sectional area showed a perfect correlation (r2 = 0.96). The best fitted Cross-sectional area-Tidal prism relationship was obtained in S3 (Market) during Spring tide condition.

Keywords:
Small scales dynamics, tidal prism, cross-sectional area, Besseke’s flood drain and Wouri estuary.

Article Details

How to Cite
Felix, B., Raphael, O., Rodrigue, E. S., Lawrence, O. M., Betsaleel, K. B. J., Willy, S. E., & Minette, T. E. (2020). Small Scales Dynamics Inferred from Tidal Measurements to Mitigate Daily Floodings in the City of Douala: A Case Study of the Besseke’s Flood Drain. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 24(1), 45-62. https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130193
Section
Original Research Article

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