Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International (ISSN: 2454-7352)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JGEESI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International 2454-7352 Two-dimensional Analytical Derivation of Incipient Desaturation Criterion in Stream-aquifer Flow Exchange <p>A criterion for incipient desaturation for a stream and an aquifer initially in saturated hydraulic connection is derived analytically. The riverbed acts as a clogging layer. Such a criterion cannot be derived using a one-dimensional analysis. At least a two-dimensional analysis is required. It applies for a variety of shape of cross-sections. The formulae are algebraic and show explicitly the various factors that affect the initiation of desaturation such as river width, thickness of the aquifer, thickness of the clogging layer, conductivities of the clogging layer and of the aquifer, (drainage) entry pressure of the aquifer, ponded depth over the riverbed and aquifer head at some distance from the river bank. It is shown also that neglecting the change in thickness of the capillary fringe due to flow, as opposed to its hydrostatic value, has little impact on the accuracy of the criteria for incipient desaturation.</p> Hubert J. Morel-Seytoux ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-21 2019-10-21 1 14 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430173 Facies Analysis of Eocene Sediment of Umuahia Area, Southeastern Nigeria <p>This research work is the detailed facies analysis of the depositional environments and paleogeographic setting of the Eocene sedimentary sequence (Ameki Formations) exposed in the Umuahia area and paleoclimate during that periods. The study area was mainly concentrated around Amaudara inUmuahia South and Ekeoha in Umuahia North. And the co-ordinate are as follows,location-1 0.5°30.80N, 0.7°26.93E, location-2 0.5°30.39N, 0.7°26.62E, location-3 0.5° 32.83N, 0.7°27.24 E and location-4 0.5°32.19 N, 0.7°26.13 E.</p> <p>The aim of the study is to analyze the detailed sedimentary facies and describe the depositional environment in other to predict the depositional environment of the Eocene sediment (Ameki Formation) of the study area, which is underlain by rock unit of Ameki and predominately contains Laterite, mudstone, siltstone, claystone, sandstone and shale and Burrows were identified.</p> <p>The rock sequence consist of reddish lateritic material, highly weathered mudstone capped with ripped bedded kaolinite clay unit, light grey claystone, cross-bedded sandstone with claystone, whitish sandstone, siltystone, fine-medium grained sandstone with pockets of mudclast capped with ferruginized ground and dark grey shale.</p> <p>On the basis of gross lithology, sand-silt-clay percentage, color, texture and assemblage of sedimentary structure, eight distinct lithofacies type were recognized, grey shale facie (Gs), clay stone facie (Cs), cross-bedded sandstone facie (Cbs), mudstone facie (Mf), lateritic facie (Lf), mudstone facie (Bms), ferruginized sandstone facie (Fsf), sandstone facie (Bsf) are recognized within the lithosuccesion.</p> <p>From the analysis, the facies are grouped into two facie association on the basis of grain size. The Fine-grained facies association (FFA) which consist of Gs, Cbs, Cs, Mf and Fst and the Medium to Fine-grained facies association (MFA) which also consist of Bms, Bsf and Lf. It also shows medium grained sand, moderately sorted to well sorted sandstone, Skewness ranged from symmetrical to positive skewed and kurtosis showed leptokurtic.</p> <p>Deduction from facies analysis and grain size analysis shows that Ameki Formation consist of foraminifera and Mollusca which indicate that Ameki Formation was deposited in the estuarine(Marine) environment.</p> A. C. Ezebunanwa J. I. Eronin V. Okorie E. C. Mbagwu Njoku Achu Uchenna ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-23 2019-10-23 1 22 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430174 Spatial Assessment of Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics from 1988 to 2018 in Bonny LGA, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>This study analysed the Spatial Assessment of Land use/Land Cover Dynamics From 1988 To 2018 In Bonny LGA, Rivers State, Nigeria using Landsat imageries of 1988, 2000, 2003, 2016 and 2018 with the aid of Remote Sensing (RS) techniques and Geographic Information System (GIS). Five land use/land cover types where analysed: Waterbodies, Forest, Mangrove/Swamp, Built Up Area/Bare Surfaces and Muddy Surface. The results show that from 1988 to 2018, water bodies, forest, and mangrove/swamp reduced by 5.14%, 25.07%, and 38.28% respectively while built-up area/cleared lands and muddy surface increased by 69.42% and 682.24%. Findings show that spatial coverage of forest and mangrove/swamp decreased between 1988 and 2018 and the reduction in forest cover reduces the significant role that it plays in maintaining the ecosystem. This study has clearly shown the roles of geo-information technologies at monitoring land use/landcover change in Bonny LGA, Rivers State and therefore, recommended that re-afforestation projects, strict legislation, policies, and strategies should be established to replenish the forests and mangrove/swamp; should be put in place.</p> D. Dappa B. C. Ndukwu A. A. Obafemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-01 2019-11-01 1 12 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430175 Petrophysical Application towards Achieving Optimum Secondary Recovery in Heterogeneous Reservoirs <p>Globally the challenge to meet the increasing energy demand is on with the application of game-changing technologies to maximize recovery from proven reserves in mature assets. Production studies have shown that some Niger delta fields have heterogeneous reservoirs with low to fair recovery factor derived in most cases by software simulations without adequate field acquired reservoir parameters before embarking on the secondary development plan for such reservoirs. Failures recorded in most secondary recovery strategies for heterogeneous reservoirs are accountable for lack of in-depth studies of the reservoir characteristics. There is a direct relationship between reservoir recovery factor and the petrophysics of the reservoir. A sand body in the field can exhibit variable petrophysical changes at different positions in the field. Therefore optimum secondary recovery plan for such reservoirs are designed with the combination of field acquired (not simulated) petrophysical data (porosity and permeability), the environment of deposition, special core analysis and formation evaluation studies. This study emanates from the recently developed project in a field in Niger delta.</p> I. E. Udoinyang Ekere Akpan N. J. George ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-15 2019-11-15 1 9 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430176 A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Atmospherics Parameters Retrieved by a Neuro-varationnal Method off the West African Coast <p>In this work, we study spatial and temporal atmospherics parameters evolution retrieved by neuro-variationnal method from SeaWiFS observations measured off the west African coast.</p> <p>The SeaWiFS sensor measures the radiance above the top of atmosphere (TOA) solar irradiance.</p> <p>SeaWiFS use standard algorithm to invert the signal in order to retrieve weakly absorbing aerosol optical thickness (<em>AOT</em>) less than 0.3 whereas the Senegalese coasts are frequently crossed by desert dust plumes from large optical thickness.</p> <p>A neural algorithm, so-called SOM-NV, was developed to deal with absorbing aerosols and to retrieve their optical parameters, off the Senegalese coast, from SeaWiFS observations.</p> <p>The impact of meteorological variables on these restitutions was studied over the entire period of the observations that we analyzed and over the whole studied area, on the one hand, but also in a more thorough way on three "sub-area" located in north, south and center. The results obtained showed that the composition of aerosols in the atmosphere is a function of the seasons. High altitude zonal U winds are correlated with non-desert aerosols of -62.16% in winter and autumn. The correlation is -60.32% between dust aerosols and the zonal wind.</p> Daouda Diouf Sylvie Thiria Awa Niang Julien Brajard Michel Crepin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-05 2019-12-05 1 14 10.9734/jgeesi/2019/v23i430177