Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International (ISSN: 2454-7352)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JGEESI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International 2454-7352 Application of Human-biometeorological Comfort Conditions in Köppen-geiger Climate type for Different Cities of Gangetic West Bengal <p>Gangetic West Bengal (GWB) belongs to Aw climate type after Köppen-Geiger climate classification (KGC). Human thermal comfort (HTC) and vapour pressure (VP) conditions together can represent human-biometeorological comfort conditions. Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is used for indexing HTC. 3-hr PET and VP values are calculated based on hourly meteorological data of six selected cities for 18 years (2000-2017) time period. RayMan model has been applied to calculate hourly PETs and VPs. PET and VP data are grouped by frequencies and time period into several classes. Spatial distribution and dispersion characters of biometeorological comfort conditions are measured by statistical techniques. Thermally heat stress is very high in Apr and May. Months of winter indicate the presence of different thermal conditions. Annual comfort is maximum in the coastal city when stressful condition mostly prevails over Krishnanagar (KNG). Puruliya (PRA) shows the driest condition. The obtained information can be applied in planning, healthcare, and tourism sector.</p> Jit Biswas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-06 2020-02-06 14 25 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130190 Characterization of Faecal Sludge from Pit Latrines to Guide Management Solutions in Cape Coast, Ghana <p>This study characterised faecal sludge from public ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines in Cape Coast to assess their potential impact on the environment and to guide the selection of appropriate management solutions. The paper also estimates the amount of beneficial resources wasted due to the lack of a faecal sludge (FS) treatment facility. The study employed a quantitative design involving laboratory analysis of FS sampled from 13 purposively sampled VIP latrines in Cape Coast, Ghana. Sampling activities were carried out in January and February (dry season) and September and October (wet season) of 2015. Samples of unhardened pit latrine sludge were collected from all 13 pit latrines for quality assessment. Physicochemical parameters (moisture content, COD, BOD<sub>5</sub>, total solids and total volatile solids) of homogenous samples from the surface, middle and bottom of pit contents were analysed following standard procedures. Apart from total solids, all other parameters decreased with the depth of sampling and the differences were statistically significant (<em>p&lt;.01</em>). Seasonal variation in faecal sludge characteristics was not significant except for BOD<sub>5</sub>. A high COD: BOD<sub>5</sub> (3.8-4.5:1) shows faecal sludge that is characterised by slowly degradable organic matter. Even though the FS at the bottom of the pits was found to be the most stabilized, its characteristic parameters indicate that discharging it into the environment without any further treatment would pose a significant threat to public health.&nbsp; The characteristics suggest that co-composting would be the most appropriate option for treating the FS and also underscore the fact that the VIP latrine technology is not suitable for use as a public toilet.</p> Eric Awere Peter Appiah Obeng Panin Asirifua Obeng Alessandra Bonoli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-05 2020-02-05 1 13 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130189 Heavy Mineral Composition and Sources of Himalayan Neogene Sediments Occurring along the Garu-Likabali Road Section, West Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India <p>The Neogene sedimentary sequence of the Arunachal Himalayas is represented by the Dafla, Subansiri and Kimin Formations. Their systematic heavy mineral analysis along the Garu-Likabali Road section indicates that the heavy mineral assemblage is composed of fifteen heavy mineral varieties comprising of andalusite, biotite, chloritoid, chlorite, epidote, garnet, hornblende, hypersthene, kyanite, muscovite, rutile, sphene, staurolite, tourmaline and zircon, besides opaque minerals. The assemblage points towards a complex sediment provenance for the Neogene sedimentary sequences with sediment inputs from pre-existing igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The boundary between the Dafla and Subansiri Formation in the region can be demarcated on the basis of disappearance of Hypersthene in the heavy mineral suite of the older Dafla Formation as well as appearance and persistence of staurolite in the same Formation.</p> Roshmi Boruah Jayanta Jivan Laskar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-06 2020-02-06 26 33 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130191 Socioeconomic Impact of Development Projects on the Livelihood of Farmers: A Case Study of the Bui Dam Hydroelectric Project <p>The development of major social projects such as hydroelectric dams, roads and mining often result in the loss of properties and sometimes relocation of the affected people or communities. This paper examined the impact of the Bui Dam Hydroelectric project on the livelihood of the people affected, especially farmers in the Bono Region of Ghana. The paper also reviewed the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) report of the project in line with the Environmental Protection Agency requirement, examined the compensation and the living conditions of the farmers in the affected communities. Interviews and focus group discussions of farmers in four communities were conducted which was later followed by the administration of questionnaires to seventy-five (75) farmers. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and Excel software for the development of charts. The review of the ESIA report of the Bui dam showed that an extensive ESIA was conducted with only few lapses outlined in the text. The interviews and the questionnaires&nbsp; revealed&nbsp; that&nbsp; the&nbsp; farmers&nbsp; who&nbsp; were&nbsp; relocated&nbsp; have&nbsp; problems&nbsp; with&nbsp; land acquisition, soil fertility and irrigation facilities when they were moved to their new location. There were also concerns about inadequate payment of compensations and unfulfilled promises. However, about 97.3% of the respondents were comfortable at their new location because of the proximity to health services, access to good roads, nice buildings and provision of some basic social amenities such as light and water, as well as possible business and employment opportunities. The paper makes suggestions for improving compensations and resettlement schemes in Ghana.</p> Amankwah Emmanuel Awafo Edward Atta-Darkwa Thomas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 34 44 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130192 Small Scales Dynamics Inferred from Tidal Measurements to Mitigate Daily Floodings in the City of Douala: A Case Study of the Besseke's Flood Drain <p>The recently constructed Besseke’s flood drain is always filled with water due to individual or combined effect of the tide, urbanization drainage, underground plumes and precipitations runoffs. This study focused on the analysis of small scales dynamics inferred from short term tidal measurements to mitigate the daily flooding in the Besseke’s flood drain. The methodology used is based on field measurements observation. The sampling of water level was conducted during two (02) different tidal regimes in May 2019. The volume of brackish water moving in and out of the Besseke’s flood drain was calculated using the formula of O’Brien. The results showed that Spring conditions had greater amplitudes than Neap tide conditions. During Spring tides, the tidal prism that passed in the midsection of the Besseke’s flood drain (S4) was 3.5 × 10<sup>1 </sup>m<sup>3</sup>. This means that only a negligible amount of the incoming brackish water reaches the Besseke’s flood drain, amplifies and causes the daily flooding. The unexpected stronger amplitudes and dynamics observed in S4 could be due to its sub estuary nature. Furthermore, the percentage composition of water in this section, showed that the fraction of brackish water changes from 85.7% during Spring tide to 77.8% in the Neap tide conditions. The overall spatial evolution revealed that, the trend in tidal prism (during Spring conditions) was (S0) &gt; (S2) &gt; (S1) &gt; (S3) &gt; (S4) with corresponding values of 2.1 × 10<sup>4</sup>, 1.3 ×10<sup>4</sup>, 1.0 × 10<sup>4</sup>, 2.5 × 10<sup>2</sup> and 3.5 × 10<sup>1</sup> m<sup>3</sup> respectively. Finally, Tidal prism and Cross-sectional area showed a perfect correlation (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.96). The best fitted Cross-sectional area-Tidal prism relationship was obtained in S3 (Market) during Spring tide condition.</p> Besack Felix Onguene Raphael Ebonji Seth Rodrigue Oben Mbeng Lawrence Kouandji Bekoumb Joseph Betsaleel Sone Essoh Willy Tomedi Eyango Minette ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 45 62 10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i130193