Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International (ISSN: 2454-7352)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JGEESI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science Internat) (Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science Internat) Wed, 18 Mar 2020 10:21:30 +0000 OJS 60 Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics and its Environmental Impacts in Kulfo Watershed, Gamo Highlands, South Western Ethiopia <p>Gamo highland have experienced drastic cover dynamics of land resource resulted from historic settlement, heavy concentration of human and livestock population, and obsolete farming practices. The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of the land use/land cover and its consequent environmental impacts in Kulfo watershed located in South Western Ethiopia. Historic spatial and socio-economic data were used in GIS and Remote Sensing environment to analyze and map the research data. The result of this study revealed that the Land use/ cover change analysis conducted in three periods (1986, 1999 and 2017) showed a remarkable dynamics and modification over varying cover types. In 1986 the dominant land use land covers were cultivated land (42%) followed by pasture land (23%) and forest land (18.3%). After 32 years (2017), cultivated land (71%), shrub land (7.5%) and bare lands (6.2%) were the three dominant land uses/cover types in the study area. During the study period, cultivation encroached to marginal steep slopes (with gradient more than 60%) and mountain grasslands where once used as a place of celebrating traditional festivals and grazing lands. Such a dramatic change in three-decade period has further increased degraded lands and raised erosion vulnerable areas to 97.2%, the resultant effects of which has greatly threatened the livelihood of communities in the watershed. The land use in the study watershed is not as of the land capability, excess forest, shrub and grasslands were unnecessarily brought under agriculture. Therefore, it is recommended that land has to be used as per its capability and conservation measures shall give attention to erosion prone areas.</p> Teshome Yirgu, Yibeltal Yihunie, Alemu Assele, Teklu Wogayehu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hydrocarbon Reservoir Characterization of ‘UDI’ Field, Western Niger Delta <p>The increasing demand for petroleum products has posed a challenge to the search for oil and gas. This search for hydrocarbon has developed due to advances in computational techniques to evaluate the probability of hydrocarbon proneness of a basin, thereby limiting the risk factor associated with hydrocarbon. This study was therefore designed to assess the hydrocarbon potential and generate a static reservoir model of UDI Field, Onshore Niger Delta.</p> <p>Well, the correlation was carried out to establish stratigraphic continuity of the reservoir sand bodies. The identified potential reservoir intervals were tied to the seismic data using available check shot survey data. With a good match achieved, seismic events were interpreted through paying attention to reflection continuity, amplitude and frequency. Interpreted horizons were converted to surfaces using a convergent interpolation algorithm. Faults within the Field showed a dominant East-West trend with two (2) major faults and five (5) minor ones. A Pixel-based facies model was built based on the normal distribution of the upscaled lithofacies log using the Sequential Indicator Simulation algorithm. Petrophysical models were built by constraining the petrophysical logs to the facies models using Sequential Gaussian simulation algorithm.&nbsp;</p> <p>Four potential reservoir intervals, A100, A125, A150 and A200 were delineated. Average petrophysical parameters were computed for all the four intervals and the results revealed the reservoir intervals to be of good quality. Sand A100 has the highest average porosity value of 29.4%, while Sand A200 has the lowest value of 25.3%. Net-to-gross ratio also follows the pattern of decreasing value with depth. Sand A150 has the highest average gross thickness value, 170.4 m, while Sand A200 has the least thickness of 80.5 m. The net-to-gross ratio preserved the pattern of gross thickness and this resulted in Sand A150 still having the highest Net thickness and Sand A200 having the least Net sand thickness. The relatively large net sand thicknesses, high net-to-gross ratio values and the high porosity values all support the reservoir intervals within UDI Field to be of good quality.</p> <p>Extrapolations of reservoir properties away from good control honored the geological interpretation of reservoir Sand A125 thereby reducing the subsurface reservoir uncertainties.</p> <p>The availability of pressure data of the reservoir will help in establishing whether the reservoir is compartmentalized and hence the model can be updated to accommodate the effect of compartmentalization.</p> N. E. Osuya, J. O. Ayorinde ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 18 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chemtrails are Not Contrails: Radiometric Evidence <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Concerted efforts are made to deceive the public into falsely believing the jet-emplaced tropospheric aerosol trails, called chemtrails by some, are harmless ice-crystal contrails from aircraft engine exhaust-moisture. Our objective is to use radiometric measurements in the range 250-300 nm to show that a typical chemtrail is not a contrail, and to generalize that finding with additional data.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We utilized International Light Technologies ILT950UV Spectral Radiometer mounted on a Meade LXD55 auto guider telescope tripod and mount assembly.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Radiometric solar irradiance spectra data that included the transit of a typical tropospheric aerosol trail between radiometer-sensor and the solar disc showed significant absorption during &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;the transit period. The during-transit absorption is wholly inconsistent with the almost negligible adsorption by ice, but is wholly consistent with absorption by aerosolize particulates, including coal fly ash. This result is consistent with other aerosol-trail physical phenomena observations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The public and the scientific community have been systematically deceived into falsely believing that the pervasive, jet-sprayed ‘chemtrails’ are harmless ice-crystal contrails. We have presented radiometric measurements which unambiguously prove the falsity of that characterization for one specific, but typical instance. We show in a more general framework that the physical manifestations of the aerial trails are inconsistent with ice-crystal contrails, but entirely consistent with aerosol particulate trails. We describe potential reasons for the deception, and cite the extremely adverse consequences of the aerial particulate spraying on human and environmental health. For the sake of life on Earth, the modification of the natural environment by aerial particulate spraying and other methodologies must immediately and permanently end.</p> J. Marvin Herndon, Raymond D. Hoisington, Mark Whiteside ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 28 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000