Measuring Hazard Vulnerability by Bank Erosion of the Ganga River in Malda District Using PAR Model
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International,
River banks are characterised by dynamic environments that change in response to a variety of inputs. Bank erosion ordinarily means losses of bank materials and individual particles or aggregates by fluvial, sub-aerial and geo-tectonic processes. It is a common phenomenon of geomorphic hazard associated with flood plains and meandering or braided river system. The problem of bank erosion and shifting of the course of the river Ganga in certain C.D. blocks of Malda District is not purely an environment-related problem but a unique combination of both environment and ‘development’ project. The objective of the present paper is to measure the vulnerability of the villages that are situated adjacent to the Ganga River. Data was obtained from both primary as well as secondary sources. The primary data was collected through observation method and through informal interviews with the affected people. Secondary information was obtained from various research works encountered during the study. The study was framed on the lines of Pressure and Release (PAR) model developed by Wisner, Blaikie, Cannon and Davis (1994 & 2003). The inhabitants of these villages are facing serious problems related to employment, health, education, sanitation, drinking water supply and market due to the river bank erosion. In some areas people suffer from the irony of dual citizenship. No remedial measures are seriously taken by concerned authorities to solve this problem. Thus, it is incumbent on the part of the government and NGOs to devise corrective mechanism to curb the threat to the existence of the affected people as well as to improve their quality of life.
- river bank erosion
- pressure and release mode
- socio-economic problem.
How to Cite
Dow K. Exploring differences in our future(s): The meaning of vulnerability to global envoronment change. Geoforum. 1992;23:417-436.
Proag V. The concept of vulnerabilty and resilience. Science Direct. 2014;369-376.
Wisner B, Blaikie P, Cannon T, Davis I. At risk: Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters, 2nd ed. Routledge, London; 2003.
O'Neil B. Women and displacement: A case study of women displacement by Ganga erosion in Malda district of West Bengal in India, Development and Environment; 2010.
[Retrieved on October 13, 2017, from epc2010.princeton.edu/papers/100534]
Ahmed S. Impact of disaters caused by river bank erosion bi brahmaputra under Barpeta District, Assam- A case study. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinnary Research. 2016;2(8):1213-1217.
Hoque A, Haque R. River erosion: Vulnerability & its social consequences on the life of women: A study at Chondonbaisha & Kutubpur in Sariakandi Bogra. Review of European Studies. 2013;5(4):99-117.
Laha C, Bandhyopadhyay S. Analysis of the changing morphometry of river ganga, shift monitoring and vulnerability analysis using space-borne techniques: A statistical approach. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication. 2013;3(7):1-10.
Singh K. Application of pressureand release (PAR) model for assessing vulnerability to industrial hazards in District Bathinda, Punjub, India. Inter-national Journal of Management and Social Science Research. 2014;3(5):25- 29.
Saha S. Bank erosion of the river Ganga in between Rajmahal and Farakka. Darjeeling: Department of Geography and Applied Geography, University of North Bengal; 2012.
Rudra K. Ganga Bhangan Katha- Malda and Murshidabad. Kolkata: Mreettika; 2004.
Sinha R, Ghosh S. Understanding dynamics of large rivers aided by Satellite Remote Sensing: A case study from Lower Ganga plains India. Geocarto International. 2012;27(3):207-219.
District Human Development Report: Malda, (HDRCC: Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal); 2007.
District Census Handbook of Maldah District; 2011.
500 homeless in Bengal as Ganga swallows land. (2018, September 24). The Hindu, retrieved on September 25, 2018.
Mukherjee J. No voice no choice: Riverine changes and human vulnerability in the 'chars' of Malda and Murshidabad. Kolkata: Institute of Development Studies Kolkata; 2011.
Maitra J. Boundary dispute between West Bengal and Jharkhand: Correspondences and documents. Malda, West Bengal: CPI(M) District Committee; 2004.
District Census Handbook of Maldah District; 2001.
Malda: With no govt help land erosion victims struggle to sustain life. (2019, April 23). Business Standard, retrived on April 25, 2019.
Anwaruzzaman AKM, Khatoon N. Backwardness of Piarpur (Char) River islanders: A geographical analysis. Reseach Expo International Multi-disciplinary Reseach Journal. 2012;2(2): 58-69.
Rudra K. Living on the edge: The experience along the bank of the Ganga in Malda district. West Bengal. Indian Journal of Geography and Environment. 2000;5:57-67.
Das T, Haldar S, Gupta T, Sen S. River bank erosion induced human displacement and its consequences. Living Review Landscape Research. 2014;8(3):1-35.
Iqbal S. Flood and erosion induced population displacements:A socio-economic case study in the Gangetic Riverine Tract at Malda District, West Bengal, India. Journal of Human Ecology. 2010;30(3):201-211.
Das B, Mandal M, Das A. Monitoring of bank line erosion of river Ganga, Malda District, West Bengal: Using RS and GIS compiled with statistical techniques. International Journal of Geomatics and Geoscience. 2012;3(1):239-248.
Maiti S, Ghorai D, Satpathy R, Bandyopadhyay J. Monitoring of land use land cover over the years due to river course shifting: A case study on Ganga river basin near Malda district, West Bengal using Geo-informatices Techniques. International Journal of Research Advent Technology. 2014;2(10):83-90.
Moser C. The asset vulnerability framework: Reasseessing urban poverty reduction strategies in world development. Urban Poverty Reduction Strategies in World Development. 1998;26(1):1-19.
Rudra K. Dynamic of the Ganga in West Bengal, India (1764-2007): Implications for science-policy interaction. Quaternary International. 2010;161-169.
Rudra K. Shifting of the Ganga and land erosion in West Bengal: A socio-ecological viewpoint. Calcutta: Centre for Development and Environment Policy, Indian Institute of Management; 2006.
Sanyal S, Mondal P. Channel dynamics and settlement vulnerability: A micro study of Deoha River, Pilibhit District, Uttar Pradesh. International Journal of Geology, Earth & Environment Sciences. 2016; 6(3):41-49.
Abstract View: 2131 times
PDF Download: 1372 times