Assessment of Community’s Resilience to Flooding in the Flood-prone Areas of the Core Niger Delta, Nigeria

Main Article Content

D. A. Week
C. H. Wizor
O. S. Eludoyin


The study assessed the community’s resilience to flooding in the flood-prone areas of the Core Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. 790 respondents were selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique in Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers States. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis of data. Findings showed that the level of community’s resilience to floods in the core Niger Delta included distribution of relief materials by community flood control committee (61.9%); helping flood control committee to effectively use the equipment to detect early flood warning (56.5%), the response committee effectively measured and assessed the extent and risk after every flood incident (52.1%), National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) or the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) engaging members of the community flood control committee on capacity building on ways of mitigating flood menace (51.7%); and community constructing flood barks, drainage, dam, etc. in order to control or manage flood incidents (51.1%). The study revealed that the frequency (F=2.661, p<.05) and magnitude (F=1.355, p<.05) of flood determined its intensity in communities in the study area. The study recommended among others that communities should set up an efficient and effective flood control committee in order to effectively tackle the impacts of flood menace, including the Ministry of Agriculture enhancing the knowledge of local farmers in using new and improved inputs and techniques (i.e. smart agriculture) for planting crops that can be harvested before the flooding.

Core Niger Delta, flood, flood prone areas, resilience, Nigeria

Article Details

How to Cite
Week, D. A., Wizor, C. H., & Eludoyin, O. S. (2019). Assessment of Community’s Resilience to Flooding in the Flood-prone Areas of the Core Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 23(4), 1-13.
Original Research Article


Mullins A, Soetanto R. Flooding in the built environment: The roles of social responsibility and risk perception in extreme event decision making. In: CIB. University of Salford, UK; 2010.

Eakarat B. The capacity building in the natural disaster management of Thailand. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering. 2015;9(5):123-145.

Few R. Flooding, vulnerability and coping strategies: Local responses to a global threat. Progress in Development Studies. 2003;3(1):43-58.

Moench M, Dixit A. Adaptive capacity and livelihood resilience. ISET, Boulder, USA; 2004.

Few R, Ahren M, Matthies F, Kovats S. Health and flood risk: A strategic approach of adaptation and policies. Tyndall Center of Climate Change Technical Report 17, USA; 2005.

Holling CS. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 1973;4(1):1-23.

Thompson M, Ellis R, Wildarsky A. Cultural theory. Boulder, CO: Westview Press; 1990.

Zimmerer KS. The “new ecology” and human geography: The prospect and promise of integration. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 1994;84(1):108–25.

Scoones I. New ecology and the social sciences: What prospects for a fruitful engagement? Annual Review of Anthropology. 1999;28(1):479-507.

Abel T, Stepp JR. Editorial: A new ecosystems ecology for anthropology. Conservation Ecology. 2003;7(3):12-20.

Davidson-Hunt I, Berkes F. Learning as you journey: Anishinaabe perception of social-ecological environments and adaptive learning. Conservation Ecology. 2003;8(1):5.

Adger WN. Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change. 2006;16:268-281.

Folke C. Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change. 2006;16(2):253-267.

Frankenberger T, Mueller M, Spangler T, Alexander S. Community resilience: Conceptual framework and measurement feed the future learning agenda. Rockville, MD: Westat; 2013.

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies- IFRC. Framework for Community Resilience. 2014;6-14.

UNISDR. Hyogo framework for action 2005-2015: Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. Switzerland: UNISDR‚ United Nations‚ Geneva; 2010.

Pathak S, Ahmad MM. Flood recovery capacities of the manufacturing SMEs from floods: A case study in Pathumthani Province, Thailand. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2016;18:197- 205.

Liao K. A theory on urban resilience to floods – a basis for alternative planning practices. Ecology and Society. 2012;17(4):48.

Raynor P, Chatterton J. Flood defences cost money, no flood defences cost more: An economic case for the Humber and United Kingdom; 2014.

Olorunfemi FB, Adebimpe RA. Sustainable disaster risk reduction in Nigeria: Lessons for developing countries. Journal of Sustainable Development. 2014;12(2):187-217.

Pathak S, Ahmad MM. Flood risk reduction through insurance for SMEs in Pathumthani Province, Thailand. Development in Practice. 2018;28(2):303-310.

Pathak S, Ahmad MM. Role of government in flood disaster recovery for SMEs in Pathumthani Province, Thailand. Natural Hazards. 2018;93(2):957-966.

Obeta CM. Institutional approach to flood disaster management in Nigeria: Need for a preparedness plan. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2014;4: 4575-4590.

Isbandono P, Prastyawan A, Gamaputra G. The capacity building of disaster management in Bojonegoro Regency. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2018;953(12):1-4.

Ogba CO, Utang PB. Vulnerability and adaptations of the Nigeria’s Niger Delta coast settlements to climate change-induced sea level rise. Conference of Coastal Zone Management and Environmental Issues in Strategic Integration of Surveying Services FIG Working week 2007, Hong Kong SAR, China 13-17 May. 2007;1-15.

Pathak S. Disaster crisis communication innovations: Lessons learned from 2011 floods in Thailand. International Journal of Disaster Response and Emergency Management (IJDREM). 2019;2(2):1-16.
DOI: 10.4018/IJDREM.2019070101

Mallick MFH, Rahman MA. Indigenous knowledge on flood risk management in Bangladesh. In Book: Indigenous Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction: From Practice to Policy. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc. 2008;271-282.

Mannakkara S, Wilkinson S. Re-conceptualizing: Building back better to improve post-disaster recovery. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business. 2014;7(3):162-179.

Evers M. Participation in flood risk management: An introduction and recommendations for implementation. Centrum för klimat och säkerhet, Karlstads Universitet; 2012.

Pathak S, Emah IE. Gendered approach toward disaster recovery: Experiences from 2011 floods in Pathumthani Province, Thailand. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction; 2017.

Dufty N. Evaluating emergency manage-ment after an event: Gaps and suggestions [online]. Australian Journal of Emergency Management. 2013;28(4):1324-1332.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Climate and smart agriculture sourcebook. New York: FAO Publication; 2013.

Iyalla TM. Environmental and hydro-geological mapping: A requirement for the Niger Delta Development Planning. Technical Paper Presented to the Nigeria Society of Engineers. Technical Session in Port Harcourt, April 12th. 2001;5.

Mmom PC, Aifesehi PEE. Vulnerability and resilience of Niger Delta coastal communities to flooding. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2013;10(6):27-33.

Adegoke OS, Petters SW, Fayose EA, Oyebamiji AS, Ajisafe IK, Tiamiyu AI, Fajemila OT, Lawal KM, Oyede AC. (Late), Edet JJ, Sonuga MS, Ulu JJ, Ekun OA, Osterloff PL, Adesida AA, Nwajide CS, Yussuph W, Adebiyi RO, et al. Geology of the Niger Delta Basin. In Adegoke O. S., Oyebamiji A. S., Sterloff P. L. and Ulu O. K. (Eds), Cenozoic Foraminfera and Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy of the Niger Delta. Published by Elsevier 2017 Edition. 2017;25-66.

Umeuduji JE, Aiseuebeogun A. Relief and drainage. In Oyegun C. U. and Adeyemo. A. (Eds). Land and People of Rivers State. River Side Communication Port-Harcourt; 1999.

Arokoyu SB, Ukpere DRT. Access to safe water supply and sanitation in Lower Orashi River Basin, Rivers State, Nigeria. ARPN Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;4(11):639-646.

Ekubo AA, Abowei JFN. Review of some water quality management principles in culture fisheries. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 2011;3:1342-1357.

Omofonmwan SI, Odia LO. Oil exploitation and conflict in the Niger-Delta; 2009.

Kellens W, Zaalberg R, Neutens T, Vanneuville W, De Maeyer T. An analysis of the public perception of flood risk on the Belgian coast. Risk Analysis. 2011;31: 1055-1068.

Adelekan IO. Vulnerability of poor urban coastal communities to flooding in Lagos, Nigeria. Environment and Urbanization. 2010;22:433-450.

Fabiyi OO, Akinbola G, Oloukoi J, Thonteh F, Enaruvbe G, Adagbasa F, Okarfor B. Integrative approach of indigenous knowledge and scientific methods for flood risk analyses, responses and adaptation in rural coastal communities in Nigeria. Final Project Report for 2011 START Grants for Global Change Research in Africa; 2011.