Regressive Shoreface Depositional System of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation of the Gongola Sub-Basin Northern Benue trough N. E. Nigeria

Main Article Content

B. Shettima
M. Bukar
B. Shettima
B. Shettima
H. I. kamale
I. A. Yerima
A. O. Umaru

Abstract

The characterization of lithofacies of the Yolde Formation at Briyel town in the Gongola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough indicated coarsening upwards cycles composed transitional succession of six lithofacies that comprises of trough cross-beds, planar cross-beds, massive beds, ripple laminations, parallel laminations and mudstone. This coarsening and thickening upward symmetry is defined by a densely bioturbated mud dominated lower part transitionally grading into heterolithic interval composed thinly bedded sandstone and mudstones both of which developed below fair-weather wave base. This is capped by a succession of moderately bioturbated trough-planar crossbedded sandstone with poly-directional paleocurrent system. These assemblages reflect shoreface deposits and devoid of hummocky cross-stratification therein may account for a moderate wave oceanographic system. Evolution of this setting in the Gongola Sub-basin is indicative of a scenario of a broaden coastline in the coastal palaeogeography of the Yolde Formation typically suppressing due to frictional damping.

Keywords:
Shoreface, Yolde formation, depositional system, Gongola Sub-basin.

Article Details

How to Cite
Shettima, B., Bukar, M., Shettima, B., Shettima, B., kamale, H. I., Yerima, I. A., & Umaru, A. O. (2020). Regressive Shoreface Depositional System of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation of the Gongola Sub-Basin Northern Benue trough N. E. Nigeria. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 24(5), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i530222
Section
Original Research Article

References

King LC. Outline and distribution of Gondwanaland. Geol. Mag. 1950;87:353-359.

Wright JB. Review of the origin and evolution of the Benue Trough. In C. A. Kogbe (Eds.); Geology of Nigeria. Jos, Rock View (Nigeria) Ltd. 1989;125–173.

Genik GJ. Regional framework, structural and petroleum aspects of rift basin in Niger, Chad and Central African Republic (CAR). In P. A. Zeigler (Eds.); Geodynamics of Rifting, Volume II, Case History Studies on Rift: North and South America and Africa. 1992;213:169–185.

Fairhead JD, Green CM, Masterton SM, Guiraud R. The role that plate tectonics, inferred stress changes and stratigraphic unconformities have on the evolution of the West and Central African Rift System and the Atlantic continental margins. Tectonophysics. 2013;594:118–127.

Olade MA. Evolution of Nigerian’s Benue Trough (aulacogen): A tectonic model. Geological Magazine. 1974;112:575–583.

Burke K, Dessauvagie TFG, Whiteman AJ. The opening of Gulf of Guinea and geological history of the Benue depression and Niger delta. Nature Physical Science. 1971;233:51–55.

Benkhelil J. The origin and evolution of the Cretaceous Benue Trough (Nigeria). Journal of African Earth Sciences. 1989;8:251–282.

Likkason OK, Ajayi CO, Shemang EM, Dike EFC. Indication of fault expressions from filtered and Werner deconvolution of aeromagnetic data of the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 2005;41(2):205–227.

Onyedim GC, Arubayi JB, Ariyibi EA, Awoyemi MO, Afolayan JF. Element of wrench tectonics deduced from SLAR imagery and aeromagnetic data in part of the middle Benue Trough. Journal of Mining and Geology. 2005;41:51–56.

(a) Shettima B, Abubakar MB, Kuku A, Haruna AI. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the cretaceous Bima formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2018;137:193-207.

(b) Shettima B, Goro AI, Bukar M, Mohammed YB. Deltaic and shelf depositional packages of the Gulani member of Pindiga formation, Gongola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, N.E. Nigeria. International Journal of Research – Granthaalayah. 2018b;6(4):188-197.

(c) Shettima B, Mohammed YB, Bukar M. Barrier island complexes and incised valley fills of the Dumbulwa member of the Pindiga formation, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: A transgressive Turonian coastline. IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics. 2018c;6(3):69-74.

Nwajide CS. Geology of Nigeria’s sedimentary basins. Lagos, CCS Bookshop Ltd. 2013;45-89.

Dike EFC. Sedimentation and tectonic evolution of the Upper Benue Trough and Bornu Basin, Northeastern Nigeria. Nig. Min. Geosci. Soc. 38th Annual and International Confer., Port Harcourt. 2002;45.

Guiraud M. Tectono-sedimentary framework of the early cretaceous continental Bima formation (Upper Benue Trough N.E. Nigeria). Jour. Afr. Earth Sci. 1990;10:341-353.

Zaborski P, Ugodulunwa F, Idornigie A, Nnabo P, Ibe K. Stratigraphy, structure of the cretaceous Gongola Basin, Northeastern Nigeria. Bulletin Centre Researches Production Elf Aquitatine. 1997;22:153–185.

Tukur A, Samaila NK, Grimes ST, Kariya II, Chaanda MS. Two member subdivision of the Bima sandstone, Upper Benue Trough, Nigeria: Based on sedimentological data. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 2015;104:140-158.

Shettima B, Dike EFC, Abubakar MB, Kyari AM, Bukar F. Facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the Cretaceous Yolde formation in the Gongola Basin of the Upper Benue Trough, Northeastern Nigeria. Global Journal. 2011;10(1):67.

Haq BU, Hardenbol J, Vail PR. Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic (250 million years ago to present). Science. 1987;235:1156–1166.

Abdulkarim H, Aliyu YD, Mamman MB, Abubakar Babangida M, Sarki Yandoka, John Shirputda Jitong, Bukar Shettima. Paleodepositional environment and age of Kanawa member of Pindiga formation, Gongola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Sedimentological and palynological approach. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2017;134:345- 351.

Shettima B. Sedimentology, stratigraphy and reservoir potentials of the cretaceous sequences of the Gongola Sub – basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria. PhD Thesis Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. 2016;267.

Genik GJ. Petroleum geology of the cretaceous – Tertiary Rift Basin in Niger, Chad and Central African Republic. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. 1993;77(8):1405–1434.

Fairhead JD, Binks RM. Differential opening of the Central and South Atlantic Oceans and the opening of the West African rift system. Tectonophysics. 1991;187:181–203.

Dike EFC, Onumara IS. Facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the Gombe Sandstone, Gombe and Environs, NE Nigeria. Science Association of Nigeria Annual Conference, Bauchi. 1999;67.

Dike EFC. The stratigraphy and structure of the Kerri-Kerri Basin Northeastern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 1993;29(2):77–93.

Adegoke OS, Agumanu AE, Benkhelil J, Ajayi PO. New stratigraphic sedimentologic and structural data on the Kerri-Kerri Formation, Bauchi and Borno States, Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 1986;5:249–277.

Wilson M, Guiraud R. Magmatism and rifting in Western and Central Africa, from Late Jurassic to Recent times. Tectonophysics. 1992;213:203–225.

Tucker ME. Sedimentary rocks in the field. West Sussex, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2003;83–158.

Plint AG. Facies, environment and sedimentary cycles in the Middle Eocene, Bracklesham Formation of Hamshire Basin: Evidence for sea-level change? Sedimentology. 1983;30:625–653.

Boggs S. Jr. Principle of sedimentology and stratigraphy. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. 1995;109.

Miall AD. Lithofacies types and vertical profile models of braided river deposits, a summary. In A. D. Miall (Eds.); Fluvial Sedimentology St Johns, Newfoundland, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Publication. 1978;5:597–604.

Miall AD. The geology of fluvial deposits. Springer, Berlin. 1996;25-157.

Miall AD. Alluvial deposits. In: James, N.P., Dalrymple, R.W. (Eds.), Facies Models 4. Geological Association of Canada, St. John’s, Newfoundland. 2010;105-137.

Boggs S. Jr. Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. 2006;129.

MacEachern JA, Bann KL, Bhattacharya JP, Howell CDJ. Ichnology of deltas: Organism responses to the dynamic interplay of rivers, waves, storms and tides. In Giosan, L., and Bhattacharya, J.P., Eds., River Deltas: Concepts, Models and Examples: SEPM, Special Publication. 2005;83:49–85.

Clifton HE. A reexamination of facies models for clastic shorelines. In: Posamentier, H. W. and Walker, R. G. (Eds) Facies Models Revisited, SEPM Special Publication. 2006;24:126–184.

Vakerelov BK, Ainsworth RB, MacEachern JA. Recognition of wave dominated, tide influenced shoreline system in the rock record: Variation from a microtidal shoreline model. Geology. 2012;279:23-41.

Swift DJP, Figueiredo AG, Freeland GL, Oertel GF. Hummocky cross-stratification and mega-ripples; a geological double standard? Journal of Sedimentary Research. 1983;53(4):1295-1317.

Dumas S, Arnott RWC. Origin of hummocky and swaley cross-stratification – the controlling influence of unidirectional current strength and aggradation rate. Geology. 2006;34(12):1073–1076.