Tidal Flat Depositional System of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation of the Gongola Sub-basin Northern Benue trough N. E. Nigeria: Implication for Macro-Tidal Coastline
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International,
This research aims to evaluate the facies and facies association of the Yolde Formation at Kware stream in the Gongola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough with objective of characterizing its paleodepositional environment. Six lithofacies consisting of trough crossbedded sandstone facies (St), massive bedded sandstone facies (Sm), planar crossbedded sandstone facies (Sp), ripple laminated sandstone facies (Sr), parallel sandstone facies (Sl) and mudstone facies (Fm) defining its stratal packages were skewed into distinctive assemblages of flaser, wavy and lenticular bedding. This present a fining upward signature with facies association typical of tidal flat system. This is evident of a coastal progradation with sequences reflecting migration of a supra-tidal mudflat over intertidal mixed-flat zone which progressively superposed subtidal sandflats. This is indicative of a coastal shoreline with a relatively progradational phase within the net transgressive regional framework of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation.
- Yolde formation
- depositional environment
- Gongola sub-basin
- Benue trough
- tidal flats
How to Cite
Wright JB. Review of the origin and evolution of the Benue Trough. In C. A. Kogbe (Eds.); Geology of Nigeria. Jos, Rock view (Nigeria) Ltd. 1989;125–173.
Genik GJ. Regional framework, structural and petroleum aspects of rift basin in Niger, Chad and Central African Republic (CAR). In P. A. Zeigler (Eds.); Geodynamics of rifting, Volume II, Case History Studies on Rift: North and South America and Africa. 1992;213:169– 185.
Fairhead JD, Green CM, Masterton SM, Guiraud R. The role that plate tectonics, inferred stress changes and stratigraphic unconformities have on the evolution of the West and Central African Rift System and the Atlantic continental margins. Tectonophysics. 2013;594:118–127.
Olade MA. Evolution of Nigerian’s Benue trough (aulacogen): A tectonic model. 1974;112:575–583.
Burke K, Dessauvagie TFG, Whiteman AJ. The opening of Gulf of Guinea and geological history of the Benue depression and Niger Delta. Nature Physical Science. 1971;233:51–55.
Benkhelil J. The origin and evolution of the Cretaceous Benue Trough (Nigeria). Journal of African Earth Sciences. 1989;8:251–282.
Likkason OK, Ajayi CO, Shemang EM, Dike EFC. Indication of fault expressions from filtered and Werner deconvolution of aeromagnetic data of the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 2005;41(2):205–227.
Onyedim GC, Arubayi JB, Ariyibi EA, Awoyemi MO, Afolayan JF. Element of wrench tectonics deduced from SLAR imagery and aeromagnetic data in part of the middle Benue Trough. Journal of Mining and Geology. 2005;41:51–56.
Nwajide CS. Geology of Nigeria’s sedimentary basins. Lagos, CCS Bookshop Ltd. 2013;45-89.
Dike EFC. Sedimentation and tectonic evolution of the Upper Benue Trough and Bornu Basin, Northeastern Nigeria. Nig. Min. Geosci. Soc. 38th Annual and international Confer. Port Harcourt. 2002;45.
Guiraud M. Tectono-sedimentary framework of the Early Cretaceous continental Bima (Upper Benue Trough N.E. Nigeria). Jour. Afr. Earth Sci. 1990;10: 341-353.
Zaborski P, Ugodulunwa F, Idornigie A, Nnabo P, Ibe K. Stratigraphy, structure of the cretaceous gongola basin, Northeastern Nigeria. Bulletin Centre Researches Production Elf Aquitatine. 1997;22:153–185.
Tukur A, Samaila NK, Grimes ST, Kariya II, Chaanda MS. Two member subdivision of the Bima Sandstone, Upper Benue Trough, Nigeria: Based on sedimentological data. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 2015;104:140-158.
Shettima B, Abubakar MB, Kuku A, Haruna AI. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the cretaceous bima formation in the Gongola Sub-Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2018;137:193-207.
Shettima B, Dike EFC, Abubakar MB, Kyari AM, Bukar F. Facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation in the Gongola Basin of the Upper Benue Trough, Northeastern Nigeria. Global Journal. 2011;10(1):67.
Haq BU, Hardenbol J, Vail PR. Science. 1987;235:1156–1166.
Abdulkarim H, Aliyu YD, Mamman MB, Abubakar Babangida M, Sarki Yandoka, John Shirputda Jitong, Bukar Shettima. Paleodepositional environment and age of Kanawa Member of Pindiga Formation, Gongola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Sedimentological and palynological approach. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2017;134:345- 351.
Shettima B. Sedimentology, stratigraphy and reservoir potentials of the cretaceous sequences of the Gongola Sub – basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria. PhD Thesis Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. 2016;267.
Genik GJ. Petroleum geology of the cretaceous – Tertiary Rift Basin in Niger, Chad and Central African Republic. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. 1993;77(8):1405–1434.
Fairhead JD, Binks RM. Differential opening of the Central and South Atlantic Oceans and the opening of the West African rift system. Tectonophysics. 1991;187:181–203.
Dike EFC, Onumara IS. Facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the Gombe Sandstone, Gombe and Environs, NE Nigeria. Science Association of Nigeria Annual Conference, Bauchi. 1999;67.
Dike EFC. The Stratigraphy and structure of the Kerri-Kerri Basin Northeastern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 1993;29(2):77–93.
Adegoke OS, Agumanu AE, Benkhelil J, Ajayi PO. New stratigraphic sedimentologic and structural data on the Kerri-Kerri Formation, Bauchi and Borno States, Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 1986;5:249–277.
Wilson M, Guiraud R. Magmatism and rifting in Western and Central Africa, from Late Jurassic to Recent times. Tectonophysics. 1992;213:203–225.
Tucker ME. Sedimentary Rocks in the field. West Sussex, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2003;83–158.
Plint AG. Facies, environment and sedimentary cycles in the Middle Eocene, Bracklesham Formation of Hamshire Basin: Evidence for sea-level change? Sedimentology. 1983;30:625–653.
Boggs S. Jr. Principle of sedimentology and stratigraphy. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. 1995;109.
a. Miall AD. In: Fluvial sedimentology, (Eds A. D. Miall) Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Publication. 1978;5: 597–604.
b. Miall AD. The geology of fluvial deposits. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 1996;582.
c. Miall AD. Alluvial deposits. In: James, N.P., Dalrymple, R.W. (Eds.), Facies Models 4. Geological Association of Canada, St. John’s, Newfoundland. 2010;105-137.
Boggs S. Jr. Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. 2006;129.
Eisma D. Intertidal deposits: River mouths, tidal flats and coastal lagoons. New York, CRC Press. 1998;525.
Fan DD. Classifications, sedimentary features and facies associations of tidal flats. Journal of Paleogeography. 2013; 2(1):66-80.
Fan DD. Open-coast tidal flats. In: Principles of Tidal Sedimentology (Eds R. A. Jr. Davis and R. W. Dalrymple) New York, Springer. 2011;187-229.
Friedrichs CT. Tidal flat morphodynamics: A synthesis. Amsterdam, Elsevier. 2011;138.
Dalrymple RW. Tidal depositional systems. In Facies Models: Response to Sea Level Change (Eds R. G. Walker & N. J. James). Geological Association of Canada Publication. 1992;195–218.
Amos CL. Siliciclastic tidal flat. In Geomorphology and Sedimentology of Estuaries (Eds G. M. E. Perillo), Amsterdam, Elsevier. 1995;273–306.
Roberts W, Whitehouse RJS. Predicting the profile of intertidal mudflat formed by cross-shore tidal current. In Coastal estuarine fine sediment transport: process and applications (Eds W. H. McAnally and A. J. Mehta), Amsterdam, Elsevier. 2001;263–285.
Li CX, Wang P, Fan DD. Tidal flat, open ocean coasts. In Encyclopedia of Coastal Science (Eds M. L. Schwartz). Berlin: Springer. 2005;975-978.
Einsele G. Sedimentary basins, evolution, facies and sediment budget. Berlin, Springer–Verlag. 2000;267.
Dalrymple RW. Introduction to siliciclastic facies models. In Facies Model 4 (Eds N. P. James and R. W. Dalrymple). Geological Association of Canada Publication. 2010;59–72.
Plink-Björklund P. Stacked fluvial and tide-dominated estuarine deposits in high frequency (fourth-order) sequences of the Eocene Central Basin, Spitsbergen. Sedimentology. 2005;52:391–428.
Abstract View: 508 times
PDF Download: 250 times