Spatial Assessment of Urbanization Using GIS in Selected Neighbourhoods of Port Harcourt Metropolis

Main Article Content

Asa Ekpo Bassey
Precious Nwobidi Ede
Ebiwari Wokekoro

Abstract

This study analyzed the spatial assessment of urbanization in Mgbougba, PH Township, Orazi Rumueme, and Eligbam Rumueme using GIS to determine the spatial and temporal changes. This study adopted data from a secondary source, which includes Landsat (7) TM Thematic Mapper of 1999, 2009 and 2019 of the study areas which were further analyzed to determine spatial and temporal changes that have occurred in the study areas. Findings from this study based on the classified Landsat imageries revealed that in Mgbougba, spatial changes were observed as a result of an increase in built area value of 591 in 1999 to 4066 in 2009 and to 6661 in 2019, hence, caused a reduction in vegetation cover with the value of 5038 in 1999 to 3733 in 2009 and to 1515 in 2019 and also a reduction of water body with a value of 363 in 1999 to 276 in 2009, with the absence of water body in 2019. Spatial changes also occurred in PH Township built-up areas indicating an increase in signature values from 3329 in 1999 to 4646 in 2009 and to 6276 in 2019. There was a decrease in vegetation cover of 2044 in 1999 to 1325 in 2009 and 1258 in 2019, bare land also showed a reduction in signature values of 1239 in 1999 to 1142 in 2009 and 791 in 2019 and finally a reduction of water body from 700 in 1999 to 658 in 2009 and 600 in 2019. In Orazi Rumueme, it revealed there was a significant expansion of built-up area value from 2514 in 1999 to 2978 in 2009 and 3936 in 2019. There was a decline in vegetation cover with a value of 678 in 1999 to 517 in 2009 and 426 in 2019.  Spatial changes in Eligbam Rumueme, showed that built-up area value increased from 780 in 1999 to 878 in 2009 and 1164 in 2019, thus, resulting to a reduction in the vegetation cover with a value from 625 in 1999 to 537 in 2009 and 251 in 2019 which indicated that urbanization led to significant spatial changes in built-up areas, vegetation cover, bare land and water body in the selected neighborhoods. However, the identified pattern of urbanization in the study areas showed that the selected neighborhoods possessed more built-up areas as of 2019 when compared to 1999 and 2009. The spatial analysis of urbanization using GIS aided in understanding the spatial changes that have occurred in the selected neighborhoods and provided plans for sustainable development.

Keywords:
Rapid urbanization, spatial and temporal changes, GIS, neighbourhoods, Port Harcourt.

Article Details

How to Cite
Bassey, A. E., Ede, P. N., & Wokekoro, E. (2020). Spatial Assessment of Urbanization Using GIS in Selected Neighbourhoods of Port Harcourt Metropolis. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 24(7), 13-24. https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2020/v24i730240
Section
Original Research Article

References

United nations world urbanization prospects: The 2014 revision department for economic and social affairs. New York: United Nations; 2014.

The state of the world children in an urban world. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 2012;10-11.

Peng X, Chen X, Cheng Y. Urbanisation and its consequences. Demography. 2010; 2(1):5-14.

Potts, D. Challenging the myths of urban dynamics in sub-saharan Africa: The evidence in Nigeria. World Development. 2012;40(7):1382-1393.

Boori MS, Amaro VE. Land use change detection for environmental management: Using multi-temporal, satellite data in Apodi Valley of northeastern Brazil. Applied GIS International Journal. 2010; 6(2):1-15.

Omwenga, Mairura. Nairobi - Emerging metropolitan region: “Development Planning and Management Opportunities and Challenges" Nairobi. 2010;5(8):7- 20.

Chima O, Inah O. An assessment of the impact of land use characteristics on Residential choice making: Implication to urban transit planning in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Knowing to Manage the Territory. 2012;6(10):1-23.

Niger Delta Environmental Survey (NDES) Niger Development Priorities and action plan, Phase 2 Report, 2; 2000.

Olotuah AO. Urbanization, urban poverty and housing inadequacy. Proceedings of Africa Union of Architects Congresss. 2005;18-29.

Jiboye, AD. Urbanization challenges and housing delivery in Nigeria: The need for an Effective Policy Framework for Sustainable Development. International Review of Social Science and Humanities, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife. 2011; 2(1):176-185.

Alkali J. Planning sustainable urban growth in Nigeria: Challenges and strategies. In proceedings of the conference on planning sustainable urban growth and sustainable architecture, united nations: New York. 2005;2.

Alberti M, Susskind L. Managing urban sustainability: An introduction to the special issue. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 1996;16:213-221.

Spiekermann K, Wegener M. Modelling urban sustainability. International Journal of Urban Sciences. 2003;7(1):47-64.

Jenks M, Burton E, Williams K. Compact cities and sustainability: An introduction in: The compact city: A sustainable urban form? Taylor & Francis, London. 1996;11-12.

Pham HM, Yamaguchi Y, Bui TQ. A case study on the relation between city planning and urban growth using remote sensing and spatial metrics. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2011;100(3):223-230.

Adb EI-Kawy OR, Rød JK, Ismail HA, Suliman AS. Land use and land cover change detection in the western Nile delta of Egypt using remote sensing data. Applied Geography. 2011;31(2):483-494.

Dewan AM, Yamaguchi Y. Using remote sensing and GIS to detect and monitor land use and land cover change in Dhaka Metropolitan of Bangladesh during. 2009; 1960-2005.

Foody GM. Status of land cover classification accuracy assessment. Remote Sensing of Environment. 2002; 80(1):185-201.

Cheng J, Febodruk BV Enschede. Modelling spatial and temporal urban growth: The Netherlands; 2003.

Longley PA, Mesev V. On the measurement and generalization of urban form. Environment and Planning A, 2000; 32(3):473-788.

Haack B, English R. National land cover mapping by remote sensing. World Development. 1996;24(5):845-855.

Defries RS, Townshend RG. Global land cover characteristics from satellite data: From research to operational implementation? Global Ecology and Biogeography. 1999;8(5):367- 379.

Monica MK, Moses MN. Spatial monitoring of urban growth using gis and remote sensing: A case study of nairobi metropolitan area, Kenya. American Journal of Geographic Information System. 2017;6(2):64-82.

Abineh T, Zabairul I. Use of google earth for land use mapping in the case of gish abbay sekela, West Gojjam, Ambara State, Ethopia. International Journal of Society and Humanities. 2015;6:2319– 2070.

Boori MS, Netzband M, Vozenilek V, Choudhary K. Urbanization analysis through remote sensing and GIS in Kuala Lumpur, Manila and Signapore cities. Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering. 2015;42:99–110.

Ishaya S, Ifatimehin O, Okafor C. Remote sensing and GIS application in urban expansion and loss of vegetation cover in Kaduna town, Northern Nigeria. America Euroasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2008;2(2):117-124.

World Bank. World bank development indicators. urban population growth (annual%)-Nigeria; 2019.

Odjugo PAO, Enaruvbe GO, Isibor HO. Geospatial approach to spatio-temporal pattern of urban growth in Benin City, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2015;9(3):166-175.