Main Article Content
The Amrit Mahal Kaval grassland is a protected area dedicated to conservation of Amrit Mahal, an endangered breed of cattle that originated from the erstwhile state of Mysore in Karnataka. Nearly 14519 acres of grassland is reserved which is enriched with biodiversity and grassland ecosystem as well and with over 450 years of history. Thus, such kind of research on grasslands is important and also inevitable. Another important point to be noticed is that, this area was portrayed as barren land and in the year 2007, a report was prepared and submitted to the state government permitting Defense and other departments to use these 11400 acres of Amrit Mahal Kaval Grasslands which led to several impact on the biodiversity in this area. Remote sensing and GIS technologies were used to study the impact on grasslands in terms of Social, Cultural, Economic and Environmental changes between 2009 to 2019. By looking at the statistics of the Challakere Amrit Mahal Kaval grasslands it is evident that the developmental work carried out here has led to the loss of 4.59% of the vegetation area, 0.29% of the water sources and 24.6% of the pasture land. The Study focuses not only on the impact of biodiversity in that area but also on the social life of people. In today’s condition both development and ecological balance are important but at the same time it is really hazardous to suppress ecology in the name of development. Compromising ecology for development is proven inimical. It is the need of the hour to protect Amrit Mahal Kaval grasslands as it provides an important habitat for many endangered species like the Great Indian Bustard and Amrit Mahal cattle breed.
Kiran Pandey. India lost 31% of grasslands in a decade, Down To Earth, New Delhi; 2019.
Mridula Mary Paul, ATVIndia’s Savanna Grasslands: The Unsung Tale,conservationindia; 2020. [Online]. Available:https://www.conservationindia.org/articles/indias-savanna-grasslands-the-unsung-tale
Hemanjali AM, Pramod Kumar GR, Somashekar RK. Assessment of forest encroachment in Chikmagalur District of Western Ghats Using Rs and Gis. 2014;3 (6):31–35.
Amoolya Rajappa. Native Amrit Mahal cattle need better conservation, villagesquare; 2019. [Online]. Available:https://www.villagesquare.in/2019/09/20/native-amrit-mahal-cattle-need-better-conservation/
Birur. Protect Amruth Mahal cattle breed, Deccan Herald, Bangalore; 2012.
Sridhar Acharyulu M. Central information commission, central information commission Mrdavis George Thomas vs Ministry Of Environment & Forests on 23 October, 2015. 2015;315:1–10. [Online]. Available:https://indiankanoon.org/doc/151396161/
Leo BSR, Saldanha. National green tribunal orders status Quo on activities of DRDO, BARC, ISRO, IISc, et. al., in Challakere, Chitradurga district, Karnataka, Environment Support Group; 2013. [Online]. Available:http://esgindia.org/campaigns/press/national-green-tribunal-orders-status-qu.html
Rathore HS. News from Drynet, Lokhit Pashu-Palak Sansthan (LPPS), India.9 (Jul), Ranakpur. 2013;1–13.
Mrunmayee, Girish GV. Precious Amrit Mahal Kavals are not Wastelands, conservationindia; 2020. [Online]. Available:https://www.conservationindia.org/articles/precious-amrit-mahal-kavals-are-not-wastelands
Saldhana Leo F. Environment support group Bangalore V. Union of India ORS; 2014.[Online]. Available:https://www.casemine.com/judgement/in/57498965e56109100ce98340
National Green Tribunal, Before the National Green Tribunal. 2013;107:1–92. [Online]. Available:http://archived.greentribunal.gov.in/Display_file_judgement.aspx?ID=27820
Aksheev Thakur. Centre, Karnataka governments assign grasslands to institutions, villagers fume, Deccan Chronicle, Bangalore; 2018.
Panduranga Hegade. Kāvalillada amr̥ta mahal, Vijaya Karnataka, Bangalore; 2013.
Chennegowda Bhuvanahalli BC, Apāyadan̄cinalli amr̥t mahal kāval, Vijayavani, Hassan; 2012.
Hari Sarvothama Vayu Jeevothama, courted by king and emperors, Samyuktha Harshitha; 2013. [Online]. Available:http://samharshbangalore.blogspot.com/2013/08/courted-by-kings-and-emperors.html
Prakasam, Aravinth R, Varindar S. Kanwar. Land use land cover change detection & urban sprawl study: A case study on Shimla Tehsil, Himachal Pradesh, India, journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International. 2018;1-13. [Online]. Available:https://www.journaljgeesi.com/index.php/JGEESI/article/view/11095/20056
Vivekananda GN, Swathi R, Sujith AVLN, Multi-temporal image analysis for LULC classification and change detection, Eur. J. Remote Sens. 2020;00(00):1–11. Available:10.1080/22797254.2020.1771215
SaldanhaLeo F. Forfeiting our commons a case for protecting & conserving challakre’s amrit mahal kavals as livelihoods suporting, biodiversity rich & ecologically sensitive grassland ecosystems,Bangalore; 2013. [Online]. Available:http://www.esgindia.org/challakere/index.html_page=1.html
Ramachandra Reddy S ARKV. Report of the fact finding committee on Amrit Mahal Kaval , Challakere , National Green Tribunal-South Zone; 2013.
Sridhar Acharyulu M. Davis George Thomas Vs. Ministry of Environment & Forest, Climate Change, GOI; 2015. [Online]. Available:http://esgindia.org/sites/default/files/campaigns/press/cic-sa-2015-000509-sagitaur-23102015.pdf
Acharya, Davis George Thomas VS. Ministry of Environment & Forest, Climate Change, GOI; 2015. [Online]. Available:http://esgindia.org/sites/default/files/campaigns/press/challakere-cic-sagitaur-kannada-23102015.pdf
Census of India,India at Glance - Population Census 2011, Census of India; 2020.[Online]. Available:https://www.census2011.co.in/data/subdistrict/5504-challakere-chitradurga-karnataka.html
Saldhana DK, Bhargavi S. Rao. National green tribunal halts all construction activity in Challakere,ESG, Bangalore; 2014.
ESG, Come participate in the colourful celebration of the villagers of Dodda Ullarthi in Challakere, Chitradurga district, Environment Support Group; 2013.[Online]. Available:http://esgindia.org/sites/default/files/education/community-outreach/events/Dodda%20Ullarthi%20Gowramma%20Jatre%20_%20Press%20release_English_16112013.pdf
Sridhar Acharyulu M. Davis George Thomas Vs. Ministry of Environment & Forest, Climate Change, GOI; 2015. [Online]. Available:http://esgindia.org/sites /default/files/campaigns/press/cic- order-cic-sa-2015-00635-moef-2310201.pdf
Bhargavi. ministry of environment and forests says Challakere Grasslands A potential Habitat Of Great Indian Bustard,Environment Support Group; 2013. Available:https://esgindia.org/new/events/media/press-release/ministry-of-environment-and-forests-says-challakere-grasslands-a-potential-habitat-of-great-indian-bustard/