Resilient Infrastructure as a Tool for Flood Risk Management in Nigeria: A Review

Michael Attah Onugba *

Department of Civil Engineering, the Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Abraham Onugba

Department of Geology, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria.

Margaret Eke Bamigboye

Innovative Heritage Academy, Mararaba, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Flooding is a disaster which may occur naturally or as an effect of human activities. Flooding which is a global hazard has resulted in devastating effects on humans and the environment. Thousands of lives are lost and properties worth several millions of dollars are destroyed annually due to flooding in Nigeria. Various Flood Risk Management (FRM) approaches have been employed to manage this menace in Nigeria resulting in little success. This paper highlights the types, causes and impact of flooding in Nigeria as well as evaluate the efforts at local and national levels in FRM. After due considerations of performance and lapses of past efforts, the article advances the resilient infrastructure approach as a formidable and sustainable FRM option for Nigeria.

Keywords: Flooding, flood risk management, resilient infrastructure, Nigeria

How to Cite

Onugba, M. A., Onugba, A., & Bamigboye, M. E. (2022). Resilient Infrastructure as a Tool for Flood Risk Management in Nigeria: A Review. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 26(11), 37–46.


Download data is not yet available.


Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN). Nigeria post-disaster needs assessment 2012 floods: A report by The Federal Government of Nigeria with technical support from the world bank, EU, UN, and other partners; 2013.


United nations human settlements programme (UN-Habitat). World cities report – Urbanization and development: Emerging futures. United nations human settlements programme (UN-Habitat), Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.


Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). Building regulation for resilience: managing risks for safer cities; 2015.


World Bank. Population growth (annual %) – Nigeria. 2021. Accesson 21 Nov. 2021.


Oginni OC, Abdoulaye T. Impacts of rural-urban migration of youths on household’s welfare in Nigeria. 6th african conference of agricultural economists Abuja, Nigeria. 2019;23-26.


Oladokun VO, Proverbs D. Flood risk management in Nigeria: A review of the challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Safety and Security Engineering. 2016;6(3):485–497.


International Code Council. 2015 International Building Code. 2014. International Code Council.

Yerima BD, Bello MK. Assessment and planning for flood prone areas in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. International Journal of Environmental, Ecology, Family and Urban Studies. 2014;4(5):35-48.

Ajayi O, Agbola SB, Olokesusi BF, Wahab B, Taiwo OJ, Gbadegesin M, et al. Flood management in an urban setting: A case study of Ibadan metropolis. Hydrology for Disaster Management. 2012;65-81.

Echendu AJ. The impact of flooding on Nigeria’s sustainable development goals (SDGs). Ecosystem Health and Sustainability. 2020;6(1):1-13.


Lucas B. Urban flood risks, impacts, and management in Nigeria. K4D Helpdesk Report 948, Institute of development studies, Brighton, UK; 2021.


Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency (NIHSA). 2020 annual flood outlook; 2020.


Adedeji OH, Odufuwa BO, Adebayo OH. Building capabilities for flood disaster and hazard preparedness and risk reduction in Nigeria: Need for spatial planning and land management. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. 2012;14(1):45- 58.

Etuonovbe AK. The devastating effect of flooding in Nigeria. Fig working week 2011, Bridging the Gap between Cultures; Marrakech, Morocco. 2011.


Centre for human security. Building a coordinated approach to flood disasters in Nigeria; 2013.


United nations office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs. Nigeria: Floods situation report no.2; 2012.


United Nations. Millions at risk in flood-hit Nigeria; Relief chief highlights hunger in Burkina Faso; 2022. Accesson 13 Nov 2022.


United Nations children’s fund. more than 1.5 million children at risk as devastating floods hit Nigeria. 2022. Accesson 13 Nov. 2022.


Echendu AJ. Flooding in Nigeria and Ghana: Opportunities for partnerships in disaster-risk reduction. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy. 2022; 18(1):1-15. Available;

Otomofa JO, Okafor BN, Obienusi EA. Evaluation of the impacts of flooding on socio-economic activities in Oleh, Isoko South Local Government Area, Delta State. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2015;5(18):155-171.

Adebimpe OA, Oladokun YOM, Odedairo BO, Oladokun VO. Developing flood resilient buildings in Nigeria: A guide. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2018;8(3):143-150.

Fadason R, Chitumu D, Jatau TS. Construction standards and regulation in Nigeria. Fig working week 2017, Surveying the world of tomorrow - From digitalisation to augmented reality. Helsinki, Finland; 2017. Available:

Lopez-Marrero T, Tschakert P. From theory to practice: Building more resilient communities in flood-prone areas. Environment and Urbanization. 2011; 23(1):229-249. Available;

Proverbs D, Lamond J. Flood resilient construction and adaptation of buildings. Oxford Res. Encyclopedias, Nature Hazard Science; 2017.


Holling CS. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systems. 1973;4(1):1-23.

United nations office for disaster risk reduction. Terminology on disaster risk reduction; 2009. Accesson 24 Jun. 2022.


Gallego-Lopez C, Essex J. Introducing infrastructure resilience. Climate and environment, humanitarian disasters and emergencies, infrastructure series. London: Department for international development; 2016.


Hallegatte S, Rentschler J, Rozenberg J. Lifelines: The resilient infrastructure opportunity. sustainable infrastructure series. Washington, DC: World Bank; 2019. Available;

Nofal OM, van de Lindt JW. Understanding flood risk in the context of community resilience modeling for the built environment: Research needs and trends. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure. 2020;1-17.


Lagos resilience office. Lagos resilience strategy; 2020.