Application of Geoelectric Technique in Groundwater Protection of Quaternary Aquifer in Wadi El Natrun, Egypt
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Volume 27, Issue 2,
Qualitative and quantitative interpretations of the accessible geoelectrical resistivity data were conducted in the area located to the west of Nile Delta on both sides of the Cairo-Alexandria desert road, between latitudes 30.190816° and 30.745892° N and longitudes 29.797607° and 30.702070° E, in the northern Western Desert of Egypt. The study area is covered by thick sedimentary exposures ranging from the Miocene to the Quaternary period. Geological factors such as lithology and geological structures significantly influence the groundwater in the study area. The Quaternary, Pliocene, and Miocene eras make up the majority of strata in the study region that require water.
The study conducted twenty-three vertical electrical resistivity soundings using the Schlumberger array to define the shallow subsurface geological inferences and investigate the possibilities of finding underground water accumulations and its contamination with clay lenses. The examination of the obtained electric resistivity values revealed the segmentation of the examined section into five geoelectrical units with lateral variations in thicknesses, lithologies, and features. The five geoelectrical units had different compositions, with the first surface unit consisting of silt clay and relatively high resistivity sands and gravels that have been altered laterally. After the surface unit, resistivity ranges from relatively modest to high. Intercalation of sand and clay occurs in the second unit, followed by lenses of relatively medium-resistance coarse sand and clay in the third and fourth units, possibly forming an aquifer, and finally relatively low-resistance sand and clay in the fifth unit.
Due to the haphazard drilling of hundreds of water wells, significant hydrogeological and environmental issues, such as soil salinization, water head decline, and groundwater salinity deterioration, have occurred. These issues have attracted significant expenditures in the field of land reclamation, both on small and large-scale projects. The study area is divided into five main geoelectrical layers observed along this cross area, as follows:
The first surface geoelectrical layer (layer A) is characterized by relatively high resistivity ranging from 8.21 to 595.3 Ohm.m. The thickness of this layer varies from 2.1 to 8.86 m. This layer represents the dry surface cover of the area and consists of gravel, sand, and silt clay.
The second geoelectrical layer (layer B) represents the dry layer lying above the water-bearing formation. It generally consists of sand and clay intercalation. The resistivity of this layer varies from 3.49 to 91.18 Ohm.m, and the thickness of this layer ranges from 17.13 to 38.3 m.
The third geoelectrical layer (layer C1) is the water-bearing formation that generally consists of coarse sand and clay. The resistivity of this layer varies from 4.41 to 37.5 Ohm.m, and the thickness ranges from 10.38 to 54 m.
The fourth geoelectric layer (layer C2) represents the lower part of the water-bearing formation. It consists of clayey sand and clay. The resistivity of this layer varies from 1.83 to 30.1 Ohm.m, and the thickness ranges from 17.78 to 31.35 m.
The last geoelectric layer (layer D) represents the lower layer of investigation, consisting mainly of clay. The resistivity of this layer is generally low, varying within a narrow range of 26.7-39.8 Ohm.m.
Finally the current study highlights the necessity of conducting in-depth geomorphological assessment studies before developing new reclamation projects, in addition to soil and water assessment.
- Vertical electrical soundings
- Wadi El Natrun
- aquifer protection
How to Cite
Zarif FM, Elshenawy AM, Barseem MSM, Al-Abaseiry AA, Sayed ANE. Evidence of geoelectrical resistivity values on groundwater conditions in Wadi El Natrun and its vicinities, West Delta, Egypt (cases studies). Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):10745. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-12644-0, PMID 35750674.
Leborgne R, Rivett MO, Wanangwa GJ, Sentenac P, Kalin RM. True 2-d resistivity imaging from vertical electrical soundings to support more sustainable rural water supply borehole siting in Malawi. Appl Sci. 2021;11(3):1-29. DOI: 10.3390/app11031162
Ibraheem IM, El-Qady GM, ElGalladi A. Hydrogeophysical and structural investigation using VES and TDEM data: a case study at El-Nubariya–Wadi El-Natrun area, west Nile Delta, Egypt. NRIAG J Astron Geophys. 2016;5(1):198-215. DOI: 10.1016/j.nrjag.2016.04.004
Salem ZE, El-Bayumy DA. Hydrogeological, petrophysical and hydrogeochemical characteristics of the groundwater aquifers east of Wadi El-Natrun, Egypt. NRIAG J Astron Geophys. 2016;5(1):124-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.nrjag.2015.12.001
Khalil MH. Hydro-geophysical configuration for the quaternary aquifer of Nuweiba alluvial fan. J Environ Eng Geophys. 2010;15(2):77-90. DOI: 10.2113/JEEG15.2.77
Sayed MAA, Shendi EH, Zarif FM. Geoelectrical exploration of the groundwater potentiality around the middle part of Wadi El Natrun- al Alamain road, western Desert, Egypt. Egypt Geophys Soc EGS J. 2009;2(1):75-84.
Sandford KS, Arkell WJ. Paleolithic man and Nile valley in lower Egypt. Univ Chicago Oriental Inst Publ. 1939;36:1-105.
Said R. The geology of Egypt. Amsterdam and New York: Elsevier. 1962;377.
Shata AA, El Fayoumi IF. Geomorphological and morphopedological aspects of the region west of the Nile Delta with special reference to Wadi El-Natrun area. Boll Inst Desert Egypte. 1967; 13(1):1-38.
Abu El Izz MS. Landforms of Egypt. Cairo: American University Press. 1971;281.
El Shazly EM, Abdel-Hady M, El Ghawaby H, El Kassas K, Khawasik SM, El Shazly MM, et al. Geologic interpretation of Landsat satellite image for west Nile Delta area, Egypt. Cairo: Remote Sensing Center, Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. 1975;38.
EMBABY MH, VERBA A. Mean flow properties in the developing region of a circular pipe for turbulent flow at maximum drag reduction. Period Polytech Chem Eng. 1980;24(1):83-92.
Embaby AAA. Environmental evaluation for geomorphological situation in relation to the water and soil resources of the region north of the Sadat City, west Nile Delta, Egypt [Ph.D. thesis]. Faculty of Science, Mansoura University; 2003.
Shata AA. Geology, in: preliminary report on the geology, hydrogeology and groundwater hydrology of Wadi El Natrun and adjacent areas. part 1. Cairo: Desert Institute, U.A.R. 1962;39.
El Fayoumy IF. Geology of groundwater supplies in Wadi El Natrun area [M.Sc. thesis]. Egypt: Faculté Sci. Cairo University. 1964;109.
Idris H. Groundwater investigation in Wadi El Natrun. In: Proceedings of the of IAEA symposium, Beirout, Lebanon; 1970;26.
Sanad S. Geology of the area between Wadi El-Natrun and the Moghra depression [Ph.D. thesis]. Assuit: Faculty of Science, Assuit University. 1973;184.
Omara SN, Sanad S. Rock stratigraphy and structural features of the area between Wadi El Natrun and the Moghra Depression. western Desert, Egypt. Geol., j.b.B16, Hanover, [Ph.D. thesis]. Egypt: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University. 1975;45-37.
El Ghazawi MM. Geological studies of the Quaternary-Neogene aquifers in the area northwest Nile Delta [M.Sc. thesis]. Cairo: Faculty of Science, El Azhar University. 1982;170.
Taylor pw, Jones BL. Tertiary studies of Beherira area, northwest Delta region, Egypt. First Break. 1983;1:22-37.
Sabagh EAA. Impact land reclam projects groundwater condition area North West Delta [M.Sc. thesis]. Egypt: Faculté Sci, Cairo University. 19921;26p.
Sallouma MK, Gomaa MA. Groundwater quality in the Miocene aquifer east and west of Nile Delta and in the north of the Western Desert, Egypt. Ain Shams Sci Bull. 1997;35:47-72.
El Shikh AE. Hydrogeology of the area north and west of wadi El Natrun [M.Sc. thesis], Fac. Sc. Shibin El Kom, Egypt: Minufiya University. 2000;177.
Khalil A, Mansour K, Rabeh T, Basheer A, Zaher MA, Ali K. Geophysical evaluation for evidence of recharging the Pleistocene aquifer at El-Nubariya Area, West Nile Delta, Egypt. Int J Geosci. 2014;05(3): 324-40. DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.53032
Massoud U, Kenawy AA, Ragab EA, Abbas AM, El-Kosery HM. Characterization of the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat City by joint inversion of VES and TEM data. NRIAG J Astron Geophys. 2014;3(2):137-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.nrjag.2014.10.001
Gheorghe A. Processing and synthesis of hydrogeological data. Abacus press. 1979;390.
Abd El Baki AA. Hydrogeological and hydro-geochemical studies on the area west of Rosetta branch and south El Nasr Canal; 1983.
Ahmed SA. Hydrogeological and isotope assessment of groundwater in Wadi El Natrun and Sadat city, Egypt [Ph.D. thesis]. Cairo: Faculty of Science; 1999.
Ahmed MA, Samie SGA, El-Maghrabi HM. Recharge and contamination sources of shallow and deep groundwater of Pleistocene aquifer in El-Sadat industrial city: Isotope and hydrochemical approaches. Environ Earth Sci. 2011; 62(4):751-68. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-010-0563-x
Ibrahim SMM. Groundwater resources management in Wadi El-Farigh and its vicinities for sustainable agricultural development. Cairo: Ain Shams University; 2005.
Zohdy AAR, Chapter D1, Application of Surface Geophysics to Ground-Water Investigation. Uni. Stat. Gov. Print. Off. Electrical methods. In: Zohdy AAR, Eaton GP, Mabey DR, editors. 1974;5-66.
Telford WM, Geldart LP, Sheriff RE. Applied geophysics. In: Resistivity Method. The Press Syn. of the Uni. of Camb. 1990;535-8.
Reynolds JM. An introduction to applied and environmental geophysics. 2nd ed; 2011. p. 2011 John Wiley and Sons Ltd.289345.
Kumar D, Krishnamurthy NS. 3D modelling of combination of array results for resistivity profiling data over a dyke for groundwater exploration and development. Environ Earth Sci. 2020;79(17):401. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-020-09142-9
Olorunfemi MO, Ojo JS, Akintunde OM. Hydrogeophysical evaluation of the groundwater potential of the Akure metropolis, southwestern Nigeria. J Min Geol. 1999;35(2):207-28.
Kelly WE. Geoelectric sounding for estimating aquifer hydraulic conductivity. Ground Water. 1977;15(6):420-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.1977.tb03189.x
Rahaman MA. Recent advances in the study of the basement complex of Nigeria: Precambrian Geology of Nigeria. GSN. 1988;11-41.
Braga ACO, Dourado JC, Malagutti FW. Resistivity (DC) method applied to aquiferprotection studies. Braz J Geophys. 2006;24(4):573-81.
Baeckmann W, Schwenk W 1975. Handbook of Cathodic protection. The theory and practice of electrochemical corrosion protection techniques. Portcullis press, Ltd. Surrey, England. 1975;396.
Agunloye O. Soil aggressivity along steel pipeline route at Ajaokuta southwestern Nigeria. J Min Geol. 1984;21:97-101.
Oladapo M, Mohammed M, Adeoye O, Adetola B. Geoelectrical investigation of the Ondo State housing corporation estate Ijapo Akure, southwestern Nigeria. J Min Geol. 2004;40(1):41-8. DOI: 10.4314/jmg.v40i1.18807
Adeniji AE, Omonona OV, Obiora DN, Chukudebelu JU. Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geo-electrical investigation inBwari basement area; Abuja. J Earth. 2014; 123(3):491-502. DOI: 10.1007/s12040-014-0416-1
Henriet JP. Direct applications of the Dar Zarrouk parameters in ground water surveys. Geophys Prospect. 1975; 24(3):44-353.
WARD SH. Geotechnical and environmental geophysics-no 5. Society of Exploration Geophysicists WARD SH, editor. Resistivity and induced polarization methods. USA. Investigations in Geophysics. 1990;I:147-89.
Adegbola RBSO, Oseni ST, Sovi KF, Oyedele LA. Subsurface characterization and its environmental implications using the electrical resistivity survey: case with LASU Foundation Programme Campus, Badagry, Lagos State, Nigeria. Nat Sci. 2010;8(8):146-51.
Barker RD. Application of geophysics in groundwater investigations. Water Surv. 1980;84:489-92.
El Abd EA. The Geological impact on the water bearing formations in the area south west Nile Delta, Egypt [Ph.D. thesis]. Egypt: Faculté Sci, Menufiya Universidad; 2005.
El Fayoumy IF. Geology of the Quaternary Succession and its impact on the groundwater reservoir in the Nile Delta region, Egypt “Submitted to the Ball. Shebin El Kom, Egypt: Faculté Sci. Monoufia Universidad; 1967.
El-Fayoumy IF. Geology of groundwater supplies in Wadi El-Natrun area [M.Sc. thesis] Faculty of Science, Cai-ro Univ. Egypt. 1964;109.
Kelly WE. Geoelectric sounding for delineating groundwater contamination. Ground Water. 1976;14(1):6-10. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.1976.tb03626.x
Khalil MH. Hydro-geophysical configuration for the quaternary aquifer of Nuweiba Alluvial Fan. J Environ Eng Geophys (JEEG). 2010;15(2):77-90. DOI: 10.2113/JEEG15.2.77
EMBABY M, MH, VERBA A. Mean flow properties in the developing region of a circular pipe for turbulent flow at maximum drag reduction. Period Polytech Chem Eng. 1980;24(1):83-92:383.
Reynolds JM. An introduction to applied and environmental geophysics. John Wiley & Sons; 2011.
Sharaky AM, El Hasanein AS, Atta SA, Khallaf KM. Nile and groundwater interaction in the western Nile Delta, Egypt. In: Negm AM, editor. The Nile Delta. Handbook of Environ- mental Chemistry. Vol. 55. Cham: Springer. 2016;33-62. DOI: 10.1007/698_2016_127
Tarabees E, El-Qady G. Seawater intrusion modeling in Rashid area of Nile Delta (Egypt) via the inversion of DC resistivity data. Am J Clim Change. 2016;05(2):147-56. DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2016.52014
Umar MA, Rafiu AA, Salako K. Evaluation of aquifer protective capacity and soil corrosivity using vertical electrical sounding method in badeggi village, niger state Nigeria Journal of Science, Technology, Mathematics and Education (JOSTMED). 20211;7(1).
Abstract View: 50 times
PDF Download: 14 times