Space Based Assessment of Base Transceiver Stations in Kwamba, Niger State, Nigeria

F. N. Sedwaa *

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

O. Iwu

National Space Research and Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria.

N. M. Ihenacho

National Space Research and Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria.

O. M. Aderoju

National Space Research and Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) started operations in Nigeria on the 16th of May, 2001. An important feature of the communication system is the Base Transceiver Stations (BTS). However, their installations have brought about public concerns and fears, specifically to issues relating to environmental risk, public health and sometimes construction problems that might result to mast collapse. This study is aimed at identifying the spatial distribution of BTS in Kwamba, analysing the terrain of the study area and examining their level of compliance to NESREA standards for siting a BTS. The data for the Kwamba study was collected from two sources; Primary and Secondary sources. The primary data include the use of GPS to obtain coordinates of the GSM base stations and their respective elevations. The Secondary and geographic data includes Google Earth imagery obtained from Google Earth, Landsat images, SRTM data from USGS Earth Explorer and shape files (roads etc) from OSM data. ArcMap was used to plot a map showing the distribution and slope extraction of the study area to provide information on the terrain. Also, using NESREA stated standard, 10metre buffer test on all existing BTS in Kwamba was carried out using ArcMap. Findings from the research revealed that there are 24 BTS distributed randomly in Kwamba. 7 out of the 24 failed the 10metre buffer test, meaning they were not in compliance with 10m setback distance as stated by NESREA for locating a BTS close to residential homes. The study recommends that stakeholder(s) imbibe the use of GIS techniques in the siting of BTS as it will assist in monitoring of non-compliance to the regulated standard of NESREA by the service providers. The adaptation of use of GIS techniques will also assist the regulatory bodies in effectively carrying out constant supervision of the service providers.

Keywords: Base Transceiver Stations (BTS), Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), radiation, telecommunication

How to Cite

Sedwaa , F. N., Iwu , O., Ihenacho , N. M., & Aderoju , O. M. (2023). Space Based Assessment of Base Transceiver Stations in Kwamba, Niger State, Nigeria. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 27(5), 12–24.


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