Review of Literature on Contemporary Planning and Geography Concepts: Unique or Repackaged

Sirle Salmistu

Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu College, Puiestee 78, Tartu, Estonia.

Zenia Kotval *

School of Planning Design and Construction, 552 W. Circle Drive, Michigan State University, United States.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


A fundamental goal of spatial planning is to plan for and create places for people to live work and play in. Creating functional and aesthetic places for a diverse public is central to most built environment professionals. While planning principles have evolved over time to address the changing needs of our society, they are not necessarily new. Yet the planning profession finds the need to continuously brand and rebrand the concept of planning. This paper looks at contemporary concepts to explore whether they are unique or a repackaging of fundamentally basic, principles of creating safe, comfortable and attractive places.

Keywords: Urban terminology, livability, placemaking, smart, sustainable

How to Cite

Salmistu, S., & Kotval , Z. (2023). Review of Literature on Contemporary Planning and Geography Concepts: Unique or Repackaged. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 27(10), 17–44.


Download data is not yet available.


Krueckeberg DA, editor. Introduction to planning history in the United States. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University; 1985.

Jacobs J. The death and life of great American cities. Vintage Book Company; 1961.

Anderson M. The federal bulldozer. McGraw-Hill; 1967.

Gans HJ. The urban villagers: group and class in the life of Italian-Americans. New York: Free Press of Glencoe; 1962.

Gans HJ. The Levittowners: Ways of life and politics in a new suburban community. New York: Pantheon Books; 1967.

Davidoff P. Advocacy and pluralism in planning. J Am Inst Plann. 1965;31(4):331-8.

Carson R. Silent spring. Houghton Mifflin Company; 1962.

McHarg IL. Design with nature. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press; 1969.

Birch EL, editor. The urban and regional planning reader. New York: Routledge; 2009.

Vojnovic I. Government and urban management in the 20th century: policies, contradictions, and weaknesses of the New Right. GeoJournal. 2007;69(4):271-300.

Borén T, Young C. The migration dynamics of the ”creative class”: evidence from a study of Artists in Stockholm, Sweden. Ann Assoc Am Geogr. 2013;103(1):195-210.

Darchen S. The creative city and the redevelopment of the Toronto entertainment district: A BIA-led regeneration process. Int Plan Stud. 2013;18(2):188-203.

Grodach C. Cultural economy planning in creative cities: Discourse and practice: Cultural economy planning in Austin and Toronto. Int J Urban Reg Res. 2013;37(5):1747-65.

Pratt AC, Hutton TA. Reconceptualising the relationship between the creative economy and the city: Learning from the financial crisis. Cities. 2013;33:86-95.

Ratiu DE. Creative cities and/or sustainable cities: Discourses and practices. City Cult Soc. 2013;4(3):125-35.

Alamoudy SA. When creativity is the solution: how to transform Makkah into a creative city. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. 2013:(1249-58).

Darchen S, Tremblay D-G. The local governance of culture-led regeneration projects: a comparison between Montreal and Toronto. Urban Res Pract. 2013;6(2):140-57.

Sasajima H. From red light district to art district: creative city projects in Yokohama’s Kogane-cho neighborhood. Cities. 2013;33:77-85.

Vivant E. Creatives in the city: Urban contradictions of the creative city. City Cult Soc. 2013;4(2):57-63.

Borén T, Young C. Getting creative with the ”creative city”? Towards New Perspectives on Creativity in Urban Policy: New perspectives on creativity in urban policy. Int J Urban Reg Res. 2013;37(5):1799-815.

Kang E. Intersectoral collaboration for physical activity in Korean Healthy Cities. Health Promot Int. 2016;31(3):551-61.

Patrick R, Dooris M, Poland B. Healthy Cities and the Transition movement: converging towards ecological well-being? Glob Health Promot. 2016;23(1);Suppl:90-3.

Schwab GL, Moysés ST, França BHS, Werneck RI, Frank E, Moysés SJ. Research Article: Healthy cities fighting against chronic conditions. Environ Pract. 2015 [research article];17(1):16-24.

Awofeso N. The healthy cities approach – reflections on framework for improving global health. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81(3):222-3. PMID 12764519.

Macfarlane RG, Wood LP, Campbell ME. Healthy toronto by design: Promoting a healthier built environment. Can J Public Health. 2015;106(1);Suppl 1:ES5-8.

de Blasio A, Girán J, Nagy Z. Potentials of health impact assessment as a local health policy supporting tool. Perspect Public Health. 2012;132(5):216-20.

Westphal MF, Franceschini MCT. The contribution of CEPEDOC to the development of the Brazilian health promotion policy [A contribuição do CEPEDOC para a construção da Política de Promoção da Saúde no Brasil]. Cien Saúde Colet. 2016;21(6):1819-28.

Hu SC, Kuo HW. The development and achievement of a healthy cities network in Taiwan: sharing leadership and partnership building. Glob Health Promot. 2016;23(1);Suppl:8-17.

Miller HJ, Tolle K. Big data for healthy cities: using location-aware technologies, open data and 3D urban models to design healthier built environments. Built Environ. 2016;42(3):441-56.

Twiss J, Dickinson J, Duma S, Kleinman T, Paulsen H, Rilveria L. Community gardens: Lessons learned from California healthy cities and communities. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(9):1435-8.

Zanella A, Camanho AS, Dias TG. The assessment of cities’ livability integrating human wellbeing and environmental impact. Ann Oper Res. 2015;226(1):695-726. doi: 10.1007/s10479-014-1666-7.

Ruth M, Franklin RS. Livability for all? Conceptual limits and practical implications. Appl Geogr. 2014;49:18-23.

Safavi SM, Taghi RM, Kohestani FG. What kinds of cities are ”livable?” (case study: Tehran, Neighborhood Darake). Adv Environ Biol. 2014;8(11):572-88.

Teo S. Political tool or quality experience? Urban livability and the Singaporean state’s global city aspirations. Urban Geogr. 2014;35(6):916-37.

Maghsoodi Tilaki MJ, Abdullah A, Bahauddin A, Marzbali MH. The necessity of increasing livability for George Town World Heritage Site: an analytical review. Mod Appl Sci. 2014;8(1).

Saitluanga BL. Spatial pattern of urban livability in Himalayan region: A case of Aizawl City, India. Soc Indic Res. 2014;117(2):541-59. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0362-3.

Harris JK, Roche J, Estlund AK, Mense C, Baker EA. Partnering to create a more livable city: the livable St Louis network. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2014;20(4):384-91.

Rosales JA. Past presidents’ award for merit in transportation engineering: road diet handbook. ITE J. 2007;77(11):26-32-41.

Svara J, Watt T, Takai K. Advancing social equity as an integral dimension of sustainability in local communities. Cityscape. 2015;17(2):139-66.

Porio E. Sustainable development goals and quality of life targets: Insights from Metro Manila. Curr Sociol. 2015;63(2):244-60.

Berke PR, MacDonald J, White N, Holmes M, Line D, Oury K, et al. Greening development to protect watersheds: does new urbanism make a difference? J Am Plann Assoc. 2003;69(4):397-413.

Southworth M. New urbanism and the American metropolis. Built Environ. 2003;29(3):210-26.

Day K. New urbanism and the challenges of designing for diversity. J Plan Educ Res. 2003;23(1):83-95.

Thompson-Fawcett M. A new urbanist diffusion network: The Americo-European connection. Built Environ. 2003;29(3):253-70.

Grant J. Exploring the influence of new urbanism in community planning practice. J Archit Plann Res. 2003;20(3): 234-53.

Greenwald MJ. The road less traveled: new urbanist inducements to travel mode substitution for nonwork trips. J Plan Educ Res. 2003;23(1):39-57.

And CL, Ahn K-H. Is Kentlands better than Radburn?: the American Garden City and new urbanist paradigms. J Am Plann Assoc. 2003;69(1):50-71.

Song Y, Knaap G-J. New urbanism and housing values: A disaggregate assessment. J Urban Econ. 2003;54(2):218-38.

Wang D. Ellul on new urbanism. Christian Schs Rev. 2009;4:457-70.

Sands G. Half A loaf. Are New Urban “Hybrids” A Marketable Option? Theor Empirical Res Urban Manag. 2009;10:30-45.

Balassiano K, Maldonado MM. Placemaking in rural new gateway communities. Community Dev J. 2015;50(4):644-60.

Denov M, Akesson B. Neither here nor there? Place and placemaking in the lives of separated children. Int J Migr Health Soc Care. 2013;9(2):56-70.

Rios M, Watkins J. Beyond ”place”: translocal placemaking of the Hmong diaspora. J Plan Educ Res. 2015;35(2):209-19.

Gleye PH. City Planning versus Urban Planning: resolving a Profession’s bifurcated Heritage. J Plan Lit. 2015;30(1):3-17.

Fields B, Wagner J, Frisch M. Placemaking and disaster recovery: Targeting place for recovery in post-Katrina New Orleans. J Urb Int Res Placemaking Urban Sustain. 2015;8(1):38-56.

Marsden T. Sustainable place-making for sustainability science: The contested case of agri-food and urban–rural relations. Sustain Sci. 2013;8(2):213-26.

Cheshmehzangi A. The reinvention of liveability in public places: Interaction mapping analysis of central Nottingham’s improved walkability. J Hum Behav Soc Environ. 2015;25(5):426-40.

Cilliers EJ, Timmermans W, Van den Goorbergh F, Slijkhuis JSA. The story behind the place: Creating urban spaces that enhance quality of life. Appl Res Qual Life. 2015;10(4):589-98.

Marsden T, Farioli F. Natural powers: From the bio-economy to the eco-economy and sustainable place-making. Sustain Sci. 2015;10(2):331-44.

Severcan YC. The effects of children’s participation in planning and design activities on their place attachment. J Archit Plann Res. 2015;32(4):271-93.

Jabareen Y. Planning the resilient city: Concepts and strategies for coping with climate change and environmental risk. Cities. 2013;31:220-9.

Tabibian M, Movahed S. Towards resilient and sustainable cities: A conceptual framework. Sci Iran. 2016;23(5):2081-93.

Meerow S, Stults M. Comparing conceptualizations of urban climate resilience in theory and practice. Sustainability. 2016;8(7):701.

Beatley T, Newman P. Biophilic cities are sustainable, resilient cities. Sustainability. 2013;5(8):3328-45.

Yanez K, Kernaghan S. Briefing: visions of a resilient city. Proc Inst Civ Eng Urban Des Plan. 2014;167(3):95-101.

Desouza KC, Flanery TH. Designing, planning, and managing resilient cities: A conceptual framework. Cities. 2013;35:89-99.

Lu P, Stead D. Understanding the notion of resilience in spatial planning: A case study of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Cities. 2013;35:200-12.

Dieleman H. Organizational learning for resilient cities, through realizing eco-cultural innovations. J Cleaner Prod. 2013;50:171-80.

Mehmood A. Of resilient places: planning for urban resilience. Eur Plan Stud. 2016;24(2):407-19.

de Jong M, Joss S, Schraven D, Zhan C, Weijnen M. Sustainable–smart–resilient–low carbon–eco–knowledge cities; making sense of a multitude of concepts promoting sustainable urbanization. J Cleaner Prod. 2015;109:25-38.

Chiodi SI. Crime prevention through urban design and planning in the smart city era: the challenge of disseminating CP-UDP in Italy: learning from Europe. J Place Manag Dev. 2016;9(2):137-52.

Gribanova G, Vulfovich R. Modern city safety as a complex problem. Public Admin Issues, (Special Issue (electronic edition)). 2017;(5):83-100.

George R, Mawby RI. Security at the 2012 London Olympics: spectators’ perceptions of London as a safe city. Sec J. 2015;28(1):93-104. doi: 10.1057/sj.2013.37.

Sandberg L, Rönnblom M. Imagining the ideal city, planning the gender-equal city in Umeå, Sweden. Gend Place Cult. 2016;23(12):1750-62.

Keramitsoglou I, Sismanidis P, Analitis A, Butler T, Founda D, Giannakopoulos C, et al. Urban thermal risk reduction: developing and implementing spatially explicit services for resilient cities. Sustain Cities Soc. 2017;34:56-68.

Yon A, Nadimpalli S. Cities for whom? Re-examining identity, to reclaim the right to the city for women. Aust Plann. 2017;54(1):33-40.

Frayne B, McCordic C. Planning for food secure cities: measuring the influence of infrastructure and income on household food security in southern African cities. Geoforum. 2015;65:1-11.

Cradock AL, Fields B, Barrett JL, Melly S. Program practices and demographic factors associated with federal funding for the Safe Routes to School program in the United States. Health Place. 2012;18(1):16-23.

Stewart O, Vernez Moudon A, Claybrooke C. Common ground: eight factors that influence walking and biking to school. Transp Policy. 2012;24:240-8.

McDonald NC, Aalborg AE. Why parents drive children to school: implications for safe Routes to school programs. J Am Plann Assoc. 2009;75(3):331-42.

Echeverri-Carroll E, Ayala SG. Wage differentials and the spatial concentration of high-technology industries. Pap Reg Sci. 2009;88(3):623-41.

Batty M, Axhausen KW, Giannotti F, Pozdnoukhov A, Bazzani A, Wachowicz M, et al. Smart cities of the future. Eur Phys J Spec Top. 2012;214(1):481-518.

Nathan M, Vandore E. Here be startups: exploring London’s ”tech city” digital cluster. Environ Plan A. 2014;46(10):2283-99.

Schuurman D, Baccarne B, De Marez L. Smart ideas for smart cities: investigating crowdsourcing for generating and selecting ideas for ICT innovation in a city context. J Theor Appl Electron Com Res. 2012;7(3):11-2.

Malek JA, Razak NA, Nor NFM. Post intelligent city development and hyperrealism of E-Community in Malaysia. WSEAS Trans Inf Sci Appl. 2012;9(4):125-35.

Bunnell T. Smart city returns. Dial Hum Geogr. 2015;5(1):45-8.

Vicini S, Bellini S, Sanna A. The City of the future living lab. Int J Autom Smart Technol. 2012;2(3):201-8.

Foord J. The new boomtown? Creative city to Tech City in East London. Cities. 2013;33:51-60.

Nathan M. East London Tech City: ideas without a strategy? Local Econ. 2011;26(3):197-202.

Anthopoulos L. Smart utopia VS smart reality: learning by experience from 10 smart city cases. Cities. 2017;63:128-48.

Yang Y, Stockard J. Do smart-growth environments benefit single mothers? Evidence from thirty MSAs using the American housing survey data. J Plan Educ Res. 2013;33(4):411-26. doi: 10.1177/0739456X13499935.

MacLeod G. New urbanism/smart growth in the Scottish Highlands: mobile policies and post-politics in local development planning. Urban Stud. 2013;50(11):2196-221.

Dierwechter Y. Smart growth and state territoriality. Urban Stud. 2013;50(11):2275-92.

Goetz A. Suburban sprawl or urban centres: Tensions and contradictions of smart growth approaches in Denver, Colorado. Urban Stud. 2013;50(11): 2178-95.

Pavlot L, Gorman HS. Environmental reviews and case studies: Public participation and smart growth in Silver Spring, Maryland. Environ Pract. 2013;15(2):156-68.

Dierwechter Y. Smart city-regionalism across Seattle: Progressing transit nodes in labor space? Geoforum. 2013;49:139-49.

McCauley SM, Murphy JT. Smart growth and the scalar politics of land management in the greater Boston region, Usa. Environ Plan A. 2013;45(12):2852-67.

Filion P. Towards smart growth? The difficult implementation of alternatives to urban dispersion. Can J Urban Res. 2003; 12(1):48-70.

Tomalty R, Curran D. Living it up: the wide range of support for smart growth in Canada promises more livable towns and cities. Altern J. 2003;29(3):10-8.

Herrschel T. Competitiveness AND sustainability: can ”smart city regionalism” square the circle? Urban Stud. 2013; 50(11):2332-48.

Fu Y, Zhang X. Trajectory of urban sustainability concepts: A 35-year bibliometric analysis. Cities. 2017;60: 113-23.

Ahvenniemi H, Huovila A, Pinto-Seppä I, Airaksinen M. What are the differences between sustainable and smart cities? Cities. 2017;60:234-45.

Bibri SE, Krogstie J. ICT of the new wave of computing for sustainable urban forms: their big data and context-aware augmented typologies and design concepts. Sustain Cities Soc. 2017; 32:449-74.

Haarstad H. Constructing the sustainable city: examining the role of sustainability in the ”smart city” discourse. J Environ Policy Plan. 2017;19(4):423-37.

Griggs S, Hall S, Howarth D, Seigneuret N. Characterizing and evaluating rival discourses of the ”sustainable city”: towards a politics of pragmatic adversarialism. Pol Geogr. 2017;59: 36-46.

Mosannenzadeh F, Bisello A, Vaccaro R, D’Alonzo V, Hunter GW, Vettorato D. Smart energy city development: A story told by urban planners. Cities. 2017;64: 54-65.

Fu Y, Zhang X. Planning for sustainable cities? A comparative content analysis of the master plans of eco, low-carbon and conventional new towns in China. Habitat Int. 2017;63:55-66.

Hamman P, Anquetin V, Monicolle C. Contemporary meanings of the ”sustainable city”: A comparative review of the French- and English-language literature: contemporary meanings of the ”sustainable city.” Sustain Dev. 2017; 25(4):336-55.

Roggema R. The future of sustainable urbanism: society-based, complexity-led, and landscape-driven. Sustainability. 2017;9(8):1442.