Evaluation of the Effect of 2022 Flooding on Business Activities in Lokoja Metropolis

Chinanuife Emmanuel *

Department of Economics, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Topfaith University, Mkpatak, Nigeria.

Ata-Awaji Anthony Reuben

Department of Mass Communication, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Topfaith University, Mkpatak, Nigeria.

Omula Emmanuel

Department of Mass Communication, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Topfaith University, Mkpatak, Nigeria.

Agemerien Faith

Department of Economics, College of Management and Social Sciences, Salem University, Lokoja, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Flooding has become a global issue and its effect varies with the level of flooding at a given period. In the wake of urban floods, public and commercial institutions are currently finding it difficult to develop and assess risk management and adjustment methods that include land use planning and urbanization patterns in addition to systems for flood prevention and early notifications. Flooding is one of the negative effects of global warming and most countries in the world are making effort to reduce its associated effects. This study examined the effect of 2022 flooding on business activities in Lokoja Metropolis. The study used a survey research design and a Taro Yamani sample size selection method to select 400 respondents. Questionnaire was administered to the respondents based on simple random selection and the data was analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) regression. The findings show that 2022 flooding exerts negative and statistically significant effect on business activities. there was low business patronage and high cost of goods during the flood period.  Also, the findings show that small businesses were mostly affected during the flood period than large businesses. The study therefore recommends dredging of the River Niger and River Benue to increase water holding capacity. Also, there should be enactment of laws against building or citing of businesses along flood route to reduce the level of damages during flooding.

Keywords: Flooding, household, business activities, ecological damages

How to Cite

Emmanuel, C., Reuben, A.-A. A., Emmanuel , O., & Faith , A. (2024). Evaluation of the Effect of 2022 Flooding on Business Activities in Lokoja Metropolis. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 28(4), 15–26. https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2024/v28i4761


Download data is not yet available.


Allaire M. Socio-economic impacts of flooding: A review of the empirical literature. Water Secure. 2018;3:18–26 DOI:10.1016/j.wasec.2018.09.002.

Parida Y. Economic Impact of Floods in the Indian State. Environ. Dev. Econ. 2019;25:267-290. Available:https://doi.org/10.1017/s1355770x19000317

Aladelokun AO, Ajayi CF. An appraisal of the socio-economic impacts of Urban flood in Ado Ekiti Metropolis in Ekiti State. International journal of Asian Social Science. 2014;4(10):1027-1034.

Olajuyigbe AE, Rotowa OO, Durojeye E. An Assessment of Flood Hazard in Nigeria: The Case of Mile 12 Lagos. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;3(2) Available:https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2012.v3n2.367

Anbarci N, Escaleras M, Register CA. Earthquake fatalities: The interaction of nature and political economy. J. Public Econ. 2005;89(9-10):1907–1933. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2004.08.002

Kahn ME. The death toll from natural disasters: The role of income, geography, and institutions. Rev. Econ. Statistics. 2005;87(2):271–284. DOI:10.1162/ 0034653053970339

Onyedinefu G. 24Kogi, Nasarawa businesses struggle to stay afloat. Business Day; 2022, Octobe Available:https://businessday.ng/business-economy/article/kogi-nasarawa-businesses-struggle-to-stay-afloat/

Kunle S. In Kogi communities, flood victims share crowded classrooms with school pupils’. Premium Times: Special Report; 2023, April 23 Available:https://www.premiumtimesng.com/features-and-interviews/563128-special-report-in-kogi-communities-flood-victims-share-crowded-classrooms-with-school-pupils.html?tztc=1

Chime V. 80 percent of Flooding caused by rainfall not Lagdo dam. Climate Cable; October 20, 2022.

Adegwu J. Nigeria Farmers Lose N700bn to 2022 floods. Leadership; 2022. Available:https://leadership.ng/nigerian-farmers-lose-n700bn-to-2022-floods-report/#google_vignette

Rentschler J, Salhab M. People in harm’s way: Flood Exposure and Poverty in 189 Countries. Policy Research Working Paper 9447. Poverty and Shared Prosperity; 2020.

Davlasheridze M, Geylani PC. Small business vulnerability to floods and the effect of disaster loans. Small Business Economics. 2017;49(4):865-888.

UNEP. Insuring the Climate Transition: Enhancing the Insurance Industry’s assessment of climate change features. Final Report on the Project of United Nations Environment Programme’s Principles for Sustainable Insurance Initiative; 2021.

Henderson F, Steiner A, Farmer J, Whittam G. Challenges of community engagement in a rural area: the impact of flood protection and policy. Journal of Rural Studies. 2020;37:225-233 Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.11.004.

Begg C, Walker G, Kuhlicke C. Localism and Flood Risk Management in England: the creation of new inequalities. Environmental Planning: Politics and Space. 2015;33(4).


Danes SM, Lee J, Amarapurkar S, Stafford K, Haynes G, Brewton KE. Determinants of family business resilience after natural disaster by gender of business owner. Journal of Development Entrepreneurship. 2009;14: 333-354.

Marshall MI, Niehm LS, Sydnor SB, Schrank HL. Predicting Small Business demise after a natural disaster: An Analysis of pre-existing conditions. Natural Hazard. 2015;79:331-354. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-1845-0

Runyan RC. Small Business in the face of crises: Identifying barriers to recovery from a natural disaster. Journal of Continuing Crisis Management. 2006;14: 12-26.

Maria IM, Linda SN, Sandra BS, Holly LS. Predicting Small Business Demise after a natural Disaster: An analysis of pre-existing conditions. Nat Hazards. 2015;79:331-354. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-1845-0

Sun Q, Mann J, Skidmore M. The Impact of Flooding on Business Activities and Employment: A Spatial Perspective on Small Business. Water Economic and Policy. 2022;8(3). Available:https://doi.org/10.1142/52382624X21400038

Xiao Y. Local Economic Impacts of natural Disasters. Journal of Regional Science. 2011;804-820.

Xiao Y, Drucker J. Does Economic Diversity Enhance Regional Disaster Resilience? Journal of American Planning Association. 2014;79(2). Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2013.882125

Smith BW. Coping as a predictor of outcomes following the 1993 Midwest flood. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality. 1996;11(2):225-239.

Kron W. Flood Risk Hazard, Values and Vulnerability. Water International. 2005; 30(1):56-68. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060508691837

Ologunorisa ET. Rainfall Flood Prediction in Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Conference in Hydrology: Science and Practice for the 21st Century, London, UK; 2004.

Ologunorisa T, Tersoo T. The changing rainfall pattern and its implication for flood frequency in Makurdi, Northern Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2006;10(3): 97-102.

Obeta MC. Flood incidence in the lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Development. 2010;2(2): 300-311.

Glago FJ. Flood disaster hazards; Causes, impacts and management: A state-of-the Art Review. IntechOpen; 2021 Available:https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.95048

doocy s, daniel a, murray s, kirsch t. the human impact of floods: a historical review of events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review. National Library of Medicine; 2013.


Gobo AE, Abam TKS. The 1998 Floods in the Niger Delta: The case of Ndoni. The journal of Meteorology. 1991; 6(163).

Aderoju OM, Jantiku J, Fagbemiro OA, Aliyu I, Nwadike BK. Geospatial Assessment of 2012 flood disaster in Kogi State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2014;8:74-84.

Otomofa JO, Okafor BN, Obienusi EA. Evaluation of the impacts of flooding on socio-economic activities in Oleh, Isoko South Local Government Area, Delta State. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2015;5(18).

West CT, Lenze DG. Modelling the Regional Impact of Natural Disaster and Recovery: A General Framework and an Application of Hurricane Andrew. International Regional Science Review. 1994;17:121-150.

Tobin G, Ollenburger JC. Predicting levels of post-disaster stress in adults following the 1993 floods in the upper Midwest. Journal of Environment and Behaviour. 1996;28(3): 240-357.

Krug EG, Kresnow MJ, Peddicord JP, Dahlberg LL, Powell KE, Crosby AE, Annest JL. Suicide after natural disasters: Retraction. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1999;340(2):148-149. Available:https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199901143400213

UNISDR. Economic impact of natural disaster. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Genera, Switzerland; 2005.

Ingirige B, Jones K, Proverbs D. Investigating SME resilience and their adaptive capacities to extreme weather events. A literature review and synthesis proceedings of the Conference on Building, Education and Research (BEAR), Kandalama, Sri Lanka; 2008.

Crichton D. Climate change and its effect on small business in the UK, London, AXA Insurance, UK.; 2006.

BMG Research. Cumbria business survey 2010 – research report. Cumbria: Cumbria Intelligence Observatory; 2011.

Butu AW, Ubachukwu NN, Emeribe CN. Impact of urban flooding on small and medium scale business in Benin City, Edo State Nigeria. NAUB journal of Science and Technology (NAUBJOST); 2021 Available:https://journal.naub.edu.ng/naubjournal/

Ejike E. 5 Die, 75 Injured In 2023 Flooding – NEMA. The Leadership; 2023 September. Available:https://leadership.ng/5-die-75-injured-in-2023-flooding-nema/

Erikson KT. Trauma at Buffalo Creek. Society. 2008;35(2):153-161.