Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International https://journaljgeesi.com/index.php/JGEESI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International (ISSN: 2454-7352)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JGEESI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International 2454-7352 Analysis of Oil Pollution Intensity in Niger-delta, Nigeria Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index https://journaljgeesi.com/index.php/JGEESI/article/view/641 <p>There has been an increase in the level of oil spillage across the Niger Delta region of Nigeria since the advent of crude oil exploration. The effects of oil pollution cannot be overemphasized, as it is not only detrimental to human health but also to the ecosystem at large. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) are veritable tools in Environmental management. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was used as GIS and RS tools to determine the intensity of pollution caused by oil spillage in the Niger Delta area for the past decade (2010-2020). The land sat imageries of the study area were acquired and NDVI analyses were performed. Five NDVI types were used with the equation NDVI=(NIR-Red)/(NIR+Red). The total land mass covered was 109,582 sq.Km. The results showed that in 2010, Healthy Vegetation was 37,352 sq. Km, which was 34 percent of the total land mass. In 2015, Poor Health vegetation accounted for the highest land mass with a total of 41,976 sq. Km, while Moderate Health Vegetation had the lowest land mass of 12,830 sq.Km. In 2020, Poor Health Vegetation accounted for the highest land mass of 38,324 sq.Km representing 35 Percent of the total land mass while Increasing Vegetation had 13,452 sq.Km with 12 Percent making it the lowest NDVI type for the year.</p> <p>From the results, there was evidence showing of increased Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) negative values across the years in the study area. This was an indication of the high level of pollution.</p> <p>There is a need to mitigate oil spillage to its barest minimum in the study area.</p> Peter Chibuike C. Ezeogu Chibuike M. Oyintare Brisibe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-24 2022-11-24 1 10 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i11641 Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics and Implications for Landscape Restoration in Cameroon’s Western Highlands https://journaljgeesi.com/index.php/JGEESI/article/view/642 <p>Land use – the way human beings employ the land and its resources is at the centre of scientific and policy interests in rapidly evolving landscapes of sub-Saharan Africa. An example par excellence of such landscapes is the Western Highland Region of Cameroon. This paper analyses the implications of land use changes in seven communities of the Western Highland Region of Cameroon. In doing so, it specifically: (i) examines the pattern of land use/land cover change between 1984 and 2021, and (ii) analyses their environmental implications. A mixed-methods approach involving the use of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods was employed. This specifically involved the survey of 300 households using semi-structured questionnaires, the conduct of nine (9) group discussions and twenty-two (22) key informant interviews. Secondary data were obtained through Municipal Council Reports. The data were analysed descriptively (using tables and charts) and spatially using maps. The study used archived satellite images to map land use dynamics over the study area from 1970’s to present. In this light, NASA’s Landsat satellite images from USGS earth explorer was acquired for the periods of 1979, 1984, 2000, 2013 and 2021 for diachronic analysis of land cover/use in the study area. The results revealed that land use/land cover changes were rapid, involving a significant reduction in grassland (72%), forests (48%) and bare areas (19%) between 1984 and 2021. This was followed by a correspondent increase (211%) in the built-up area, and in agricultural space (22%). Additionally, land use/land cover changes have led to a change in local climatic conditions, a decline in crop and livestock output, and rising food costs. The study recommends that international NGOs operating in this area should engage with communities on aspects of sustainable land management. Relevant government ministerial departments and municipal agents should emphasise the need to respect land use plans, to limit the uncoordinated colonisation of slopes for farming and settlement. Besides establishing the pattern of land use transformation in this landscape, this paper provides new insights on the environmental effects of land use/land cover dynamics in Cameroon’s Western Highlands. The results demonstrate novelty through its further identification of food security issues linked to land use/land cover dynamics.</p> Solange Akhere Gwan Zephania Nji Fogwe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 11 28 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i11642