Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International (ISSN: 2454-7352)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JGEESI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International 2454-7352 Evaluation of Geotechnical Parameters and Attributes of Amassoma Soil in Bayelsa State, South-south, Nigeria, Using Seismic Refraction Analysis as an Indicator for Its Engineering Strength Determination <p>In this paper, we have carried out analysis of seismic refraction data obtained from two locations around Amassoma and its environs in Bayelsa State, South-South, Central Niger Delta, Nigeria. The core objective of the study was to evaluate the elastic parameters and attributes of the soil and its geotechnical conditions in order to determine its soil strength to carry load . These geophysical parameters and attributes include the p-wave and s-wave velocities, Vp /Vs ratio, dynamic Poisson ratio σ, rigidity modulus μ, bulk incompressibility K, Young’s modulus E, lamda-rho (lame’s) attribute λρ, K/μ ratio, and E/μ ratio. The layer velocities were obtained as the inverse of the slope of the travel time versus geophone distance curves plotted with the available refraction data, while the layer thicknesses were obtained from the intercepts of the plots. The p-wave and s-wave velocities were used as inputs in various mathematical relations to obtain the elastic moduli and their ratios. The results obtained depict a two-layer model, with the mean p-wave velocities of the layers generally found to lie in the 218m/s - 392m/s range and mean s-wave velocities in the 128m/s -231m/s range. The Vp/Vs ratio (the lithology discriminator) has values lying between 1.699 and 1.7 and the dynamic Poisson ratio has values between 0.235 and 0.240 . The moduli have most of their values above 3.0 x 10<sup>7 </sup>N/m<sup>2</sup> and their ratios are clearly more than unity. Overall, these results show that the topsoil and underlying sediments in the study area which are composed mainly of clay and sandy clay can be described as well consolidated and competent geomaterials that can support foundation structures and loads placed on them. In the final analysis, all the results obtained were found to be in agreement with the values reported in the literature for the Niger Delta and across the globe. The seismic refraction method has therefore been shown in this study as an effective technique for assessing the geotechnical strength of the soil.</p> R. C. Nwankwo I. Aigbedion ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 1 13 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i730358 Public Perception of Climate Change Awareness in Akinyele Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The study investigated the awareness, causes, effects and mitigation strategies of climate change revealing that generally the people are knowledgeable of the issues involved.</p> <p><strong>Study Area:</strong> This study was carried out in Oyo state, specifically Akinyele Local Government Area Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Two hundred and forty copies of the questionnaire were administered to the residents of Akinyele local government taking into consideration the prominent areas within each of the twelve (12) wards of the local government area. Twenty respondents using simple random sampling from each of the 12 wards were selected making up 240 questionnaires.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The assessment of socioeconomic characteristics of the population showed that the area is male-dominated with only 45% being female. It is predominantly Yoruba (80.8%) with 55% being 40 years and below and Christians and Muslims sum up to 93.3%. The majority of the population are involved with various occupations while 30.8% constituting the dependent population (students 22.5% and unemployed 8.3%). The study investigated the awareness, causes, effects and mitigation strategies of climate change revealing that generally, the people are knowledgeable of the issues involved. Concerning awareness, 53.3% of the people consider themselves to be knowledgeable of climate change with 62.55 of males being more knowledgeable than females (37.5%). Equally noteworthy is the fact that students were the most knowledgeable of the occupation group with 39%, with artisans who have 0% knowledge about global warming. However, schools constituted the least source of information of the inhabitants with 9.5% while Print and Electronic media seem to have the high source of information (33%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is suggested that environmental issues such as global warming and climate change should be included in the school curriculum and studied at various levels.</p> Taiwo S. Ogunwumi Aishat Oyeniyi Joseph C. Udoh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-07 2022-07-07 14 24 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i730360 Structural Evaluating the Production of Paving Stone by Using Recycled Nylon and Plastic Wastes <p>This research project is concerned with the Structural Evaluating the Production of Paving Stones by Using Recycled Nylon and Plastic Waste. Nylon and Plastics have become&nbsp; widely used materials in Nigeria, ranging from home, commercial and industrial use. Managing the wastes generated through the industrial booms has become a concern because of its harmful environmental effects. The study work is mainly limited to the Federal Polytechnic&nbsp; Offa and Offa community in Kwara State for materials gathering for data collection. This&nbsp; study assesses the volume of nylon and plastic wastes generated within the study area. Three samples of wastes (polymer) named A, B and C ' sachet water's nylon, packaging nylon&nbsp; and pet bottles', were selected for the process. The recycling process involves sorting,&nbsp; cleaning, and drying. Further, the thermoplastic&nbsp;<em>materials undergo&nbsp;</em>a melting process using a temperature range of 150-165oC with the aggregate compositions of moulding materials and produced eight prototype models of paving stones. The sample was subjected to<strong>&nbsp;</strong>a water absorption test, flexural test, and oven test and observed that; samples A, B and C in ratios 1:1, 1:1, and 1:2 have greater values of tested parameters compared to paving stone made with conventional cement and granite dust. Hence, paving stones made from nylon and plastic materials (Polymers) have greater strength and resistance to water absorption. Therefore, the researchers suggested an open platform for a close collaboration between the government and the professionals in the built environment to encourage the use of waste material to replace&nbsp; cement.</p> O. Obadimu Olawale M. B. Shittu O. Alabi Abdullateef ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 25 37 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i730361 Evaluation of Water Column Correction Methods in Mapping Seagrass Bed Using Remote Sensing Data in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam <p>The use of remote sensing images for the interpretation of underwater substrate objects depends on their reflectance spectrum of different water depths. Thus, the water column correction step is important in the interpretation. Two commonly used water column correction methods are Lyzenga’s depth invariant index (DII) method and Sagawa’s bottom reflectance index (BRI) method. To evaluate the role of each method in Khanh Hoa waters, Tuan Le water, with a high seagrass coverage and moderate turbidity, and Thuy Trieu Lagoon, with high biodiversity of seagrass species and turbidity water, were selected as representatives. 70% of the survey data was used for ground training data of seagrass (dense and patchy), muddy-sand and sand features and the interpretation of both methods, whereas the remaining 30% of the survey data was used for validation of the mapping results. The maximum likelihood classification approach was used to extract the seagrass map and evaluated by overall accuracy as well as the Kappa coefficient. The processing results show that, in Tuan Le water, using the DII method gives an accuracy of 82.1% and the BRI of 80.1%; and in Thuy Trieu Lagoon, the DII method has an accuracy of 80.67% and the BRI of 80.0%. These results demonstrate that both methods have high accuracy results in both areas, but the method of BRI gives better results.</p> Lau Va Khin Nguyen Van Hung Vu Van Tac Phan Quang Le Thi Hai Nhu Tran Thanh Ha Do Thi Phuong Thao Ha Van Thach Phan Minh Thu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-26 2022-07-26 38 46 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i730362 Critical Challenges, Implications and Sustainable Options of Potable Water Management in Mutengene, South West Region, Cameroon <p>Sustainable management of potable water has been an outstanding problem faced by the world and a greater challenge of it is seen in Africa. The rapid growing population in Cameroon has led to a critical challenge of potable water management in Mutengene, south west region of Cameroon. This study examines the critical challenges and implications of potable water management and supply in Mutengene. A combination of research methods like the literature reviews; interviews and reconnaissance field appraisal have been used in this study. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2021 to February 2022 using quantitative and qualitative approaches. The assessment of water supply challenges was done with a semi quantitative approach. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) questionnaires were administered while qualitative data was collected through Focus Group Discussions and in-depth interviews. The results obtained from the questionnaires administered indicated that 60% of the water supply challenges were as a result of frequent water shortages in Mutengene town. Meanwhile 40% of the respondents stated that longer distances is being undertaken every day to fetch for potable water. In order to overcome these challenges, the government and the local community of Mutengene urgently need to set up a budget together with a stronger team to manage and supply potable water to the town of Mutengene.</p> Emmanuel Nong Buh Roy Lyonga Mbua Melle Ekane Maurice Tata Emmanuel Sunjo Amos Fang Zeh Leonard Shang-Quartey Ukah Bonaventure Ngong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 47 56 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i730363