Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International (ISSN: 2454-7352)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JGEESI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science Internat) (Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science Internat) Mon, 01 Nov 2021 09:33:31 +0000 OJS 60 Evaluation of Heavy Metals and Contamination Status of Soil around Abandoned and Active Nigerian Dumpsites <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The study evaluated the heavy metals and contamination status of soil around active and abandoned waste dumpsites in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Five soil samples were collected at the topsoil (0-15cm depth) in a regular distance of 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m and 100m from the center of the dumpsites and control plot. The soil samples were analysed for heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn), pH and total Organic C (TOC) using standard laboratory analyses and contamination indices to determine the soil contamination status. Descriptive statistics involving mean and standard deviation were used for the data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean concentrations of Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn in active dumpsite was 3.2616mg/kg, 0.3983 mg/kg, 0.2027 mg/kg, 6.5785 mg/kg, 2.6991mg/kg and 12.4111mg/kg respectively while that of the abandoned dumpsite are 1.3913mg/kg, 0.3693mg/kg, 0.0882mg/kg, 3.6235mg/kg, 0.4158mg/kg and 4.0140mg/kg respectively. Hence, the soil samples in both dumpsites exceeded the allowable limit of World Health Organisation (WHO). The order of heavy metal concentrations in the dumpsites was Zn&gt;Fe&gt;Cu&gt;Pb&gt;Cr&gt;Cd. The contamination factor of the heavy metals follows order: Pb &gt; Cu &gt; Cr &gt; Zn &gt; Fe for both dumpsites. The degree of contamination ranged from (1612.51 to 2286.83 for active dumpsite and 26.14 to 641.46 for abandoned dumpsite) indicating very high degree of contamination. Modified degree of contamination ranged from 46.09 to 381.14 for active dumpsite indicating “ultra-high degree of contamination” and 4.36 to 106.91 for abandoned dumpsite indicating high degree of contamination to ultra-high degree of contamination. Pollution Load Index ranged from (5.08 to 8.12 for active and 1.63 to 4.16 for abandoned dumpsite) indicating polluted soil with various heavy metals. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> the concentration of heavy metals combined with the contamination indices revealed that the soils around the dumpsites are contaminated/polluted; hence, pose ecological and health-related risk.</p> O. O. Afolabi, O. S. Eludoyin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing Perceptions and Practices of Environmental Problems: Bahir Dar City, in Ethiopia, in Focus <p>The main purpose of this study was to see the level of environmental perception and perceived environmental practices. It also addressed the correlations among demographic factors, awareness and perceived behaviors. Besides, how gender difference, if any, revealed on people’s perception and practice was checked. Fifty participants selected randomly from different working sites (such as football field, shopping centers, and public library) were administered a likert scale questionnaire on perceptions and practices of environmental issues. The descriptive statistics revealed fairly higher level of environmental perception and practices. Correlation coefficients revealed little sign of connection between what the participants perceived about environmental problems and what environmental activities they reported. Besides, insignificant differences between men and women were observed on both their perceptions and pro-environmental behaviors. Therefore, the role background and gender related variables play for pro-environmental issues seemed to be re-examined for a more elaborated explanation on environmental perception and behaviors.</p> Birhanu Simegn Chanie ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Different WQI Methods for Drinking Water Assessment with a Case Study of Groundwater from Vizianagaram District, AP, India <p>Application of Water Quality Index (WQI) to assess the water quality for drinking water suitability and intensity of contamination is in practice worldwide. Many WQI methods have been in use since their conceptualization, and some are country-specific or use-specific. A generalized and widely acceptable method that can project ground truths in non-dimensional numerical form to evaluate the water quality, especially for drinking uses, is lacking. Complexity and disagreement among different methods are adding to incongruence among the scientists. The concept and a simple calculation method of WQI are deliberated. Five different WQI methods using water chemistry results of Vizianagarm District are discussed. The WQI output obtained from these methods displays discrepancies in the proper projection of water quality. Some samples show similarities in WQI values obtained from two to four methods. However, the suitability status of water for drinking purposes could not be precisely ascertained from these indices. Since the water chemistry results and WQI values are incompatible, the output from these methods could be red herring. Few issues are identified among the studied methods which need improvisation. The use of ideal value in the weighted arithmetic index method and arbitration in assigning Weight for each parameter gives scope for speculation. Non-uniformity in the categorization of water and the suitability statuses of drinking water are discouraging factors. The WQI is an effective tool in screening the vast database for identifying and addressing the issues in water quality. Since drinking water standards and water supply are government-sponsored, an institutional intervention is required to standardize the WQI computation procedure. Such an initiative is necessary for the practical application of water quality data to contain water-borne diseases.</p> A. G. S. Reddy, K. S. Sastry, Guru Raghavendra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Hydrocarbon Reservoir Characterization of ‘Khume’ Field, Offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria <p>The integrative approach of well log correlation and seismic interpretation was adopted in this study to adequately characterize and evaluate the hydrocarbon potentials of Khume field, offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria. 3-D seismic data and well logs data from ten (10) wells were utilized to delineate the geometry of the reservoirs in Khume field, and as well as to estimate the hydrocarbon reserves. Three hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs of interest (D-04, D-06, and E-09A) were delineated using an array of gamma-ray logs, resistivity log, and neutron/density log suites. Stratigraphic interpretation of the lithologies in Khume field showed considerable uniform gross thickness across all three sand bodies. Results of petrophysical evaluations conducted on the three reservoirs correlated across the field showed that; shale volume ranged from 7-14%, total and effective porosity ranged from 19-26% and 17-23% respectively, NTG from 42 to 100%, water saturation from 40%-100% and permeability from 1265-2102 mD. Seismic interpretation established the presence of both synthetic and antithetic faults. A total of six synthetic and four antithetic faults were interpreted from the study area. Horizons interpretation was done both in the strike and dip directions. Time and depth structure maps revealed reservoir closures to be anticlinal and fault supported in the field. Hydrocarbon volumes were calculated using the deterministic (map-based) approach. Stock tank oil initially in place (STOIIP) for the proven oil column estimated for the D-04 reservoir was 11.13 MMSTB, 0.54 MMSTB for D-06, and 2.16 MMSTB for E-09A reservoir. For the possible oil reserves, a STOIIP value of 7.28 MMSTB was estimated for D-06 and 6.30 MMSTB for E-09A reservoir, while a hydrocarbon initially in place (HIIP) of 4.13 MMSTB of oil equivalents was derived for the undefined fluid (oil/gas) in D-06 reservoir. A proven gas reserve of 1.07 MMSCF was derived for the D-06 reservoir. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of 3-D seismic and well logs data in delineating reservoir structural architecture and in estimating hydrocarbon volumes</p> K. A. Obakhume, O. M. Ekeng, C. Atuanya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Stakeholders’ Interactions and Land Management Options in Bui Division, North West Region of Cameroon By <p>The lucid engagements of stakeholders in land management is an essential strategy in circumventing the stakes of land utilisation. This is symptomatic in ecumenes of intricate ecological traits with diverse stakeholders’ management interests. Bui Division of the North West Region of Cameroon, a citadel of stakeholders enmeshed and is manning their respective lands with signatures of rare plausible interaction options in a decentralisation framework. As such, the study sought to assess the stakeholders’ interaction options for land management in Bui Division. A historical and comparative research designs were used to obtain primary and secondary data from 1971-2021. This was through questionnaires, formal and informal interviews from 16.9% of population in 505 households and direct observations with consultation of published and unpublished documents. Data was analysed using inferential statistics with the Anova Test at 0.05 at a critical level and a df of 7 to determine the significant differences in stakeholders’ interaction options for land management. The results reveal the calculated values of 0.9, 8, 3.9, 3.6 and 8.3 higher than the tabulated ratios of 0.65, 0.000, 0.001, 0.002 and 0.000 respectively. This indicates that there were significant differences in stakeholders’ interaction options in land management based on stakeholders’ activities and interests. Multiple stakeholders’ collaborative and participatory interaction options were positively apt in diverse sectors of land management. The study posits that participatory interaction through multi-stakeholders’ involvements and collaborations are the best options to minimise the deprived perceptions of under representation of some stakeholders in land management platforms in Bui Division.</p> Bailack Kevin Mbuh, Mbanga Lawrence Akei ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Access to Public Healthcare Services in Urban Areas in Nigeria: The Influence of Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Urban Population <p><strong>Background:</strong> Ensuring access to healthcare facilities is a high priority need in developing countries. This research aimed to determine the influence of socio-demographic and economic characteristics of the urban population in Nigeria to access to public healthcare facilities.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We conducted a community-based study in 400 households across the three urban areas of Gombe state, Nigeria. Access to healthcare facilities was quantified in a composite index which considers availability, accessibility and affordability. The head of families was interviewed for information related to access and for the socio-demographic and economic status of the residences. The influence of socio-demographic and economic characteristics was determined using a chi-square test with a significance level of &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Most of the population interviewed within the selected urban areas had good access (84%) to public healthcare facilities. Socio-demographic and economic characteristics of household representatives such as age (<em>p = 0.02</em>), religious status (<em>p = 0.00</em>), level of education (<em>p =0 .00</em>), employment (<em>p = 0.00</em>) and possession of healthcare insurance (<em>p = 0.00</em>) were found to significantly influence access to healthcare facilities in urban areas.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>&nbsp;Access to public healthcare facilities within the urban areas was good and the study revealed some modifiable socio-demographic and economic factors that influence access. We recommend the intervention to address the factors to further improve access to public healthcare facilities and to achieve universal healthcare coverage.</p> Abubakar Abdullahi, Nalika Gunawardena ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Potable Water Accessibility in the Slums of Douala IV Municipality, Cameroon <p>The proliferation of slums in sub-Saharan Africa validates the need for renewed interest on access to basic services–potable water in this case. In the context of Bonaberi Douala, recent evidence on potable water accessibility is lacking, amidst rising population growth. To close this knowledge gap, this paper draws from a sample of 1115 households in 8 neighborhoods of Bonaberi to: (1) assess potable water accessibility and (2) examine the regularity of water flow. The results revealed that only 51.3% of slum dwellers have pipe water connections, while 33.4% rely on public standpipes. Furthermore, 28.4% make use of boreholes, while 46% use rainwater. About 12.5% of the population cover a distance of more than 200 m to fetch water. The pattern of water flow in several neighbourhoods is irregular; this precipitates the spread of waterborne diseases. The paper recommends that a control committee should be set aside to check water quality and reduce the spread of water-related diseases. The government and other local stakeholders should promote community water projects that can supply potable water in these slums.</p> Lueong Lovees Ahfembombi, Zephania N. Fogwe, Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 GIS and Remote Sensing Analysis of the Impact of Land use Land Cover Change on Forest Degradation: Evidence from the Central Part of Taraba State, Nigeria <p>Forest is a fundamental, significant, and valuable component of a sustainable environment. Ecosystem services, biodiversity development, and economic growth in any nation depend on the proficient use of forests and their resources. However, deforestation has remained the single most important environmental phenomenon threatening the existence of the forest environment in Nigeria. This study was carried out to assess the exploitation of forestland in the central zone of Taraba state using GIS and remote sensing techniques. The satellite imageries used are Lands at imageries of 2006, 2012, and 2018. Ground Control points (GCPs) were obtained from Google earth to validate the coordinates of the classified imageries. The result obtained from 2006 classification showed that thick forest occupied the total of 1685448.99 ha equivalent to 80.38% and was the highest land cover suffering a decline in the area amounting to 694696 ha which equals to 33.13% in 2018. The pattern of land cover changes at the early stage was restricted to dissection and perforation in 2006. A remarkable expansion of bare land patches accompanied by total attrition of thick forest was identified due North in Bali local government area as compared to Gashaka and Kurmi local governments that have fragmented and little shrinking pattern of changes from 6.87% in 2006 to 37.65% in 2018. This shows that; as bare land increases, thick forests keep on decreasing within thirteen (13) years. It was recommended that increased reforestation efforts, sensitization and periodical campaigns against deforestation, and redesign of the existing forestry laws by the state government to curtail incessant incidents of deforestation in the study area be undertaken.</p> Umar Jauro Abba, Adewuyi Taiye, Yusuf Mohammed Bakoji, Bashir Babanyaya Mohammed, Adamu Auwal Umar, Ibrahim Abdullahi, Mohammed Saleem Isa, Abubakar Isah, Ayesukwe Rimamsikwe Ishaku ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Environmental and Socio Economic Signatures of Landcover and Landuse Dynamics in the Ndu Tea Estate, North West Cameroon <p>Land is a fundamental factor of production and thus the source of all forms of material wealth. For a sustainable utilization of the land resources, it is essential to know its natural characteristics, extent, location and limitations of various land uses as improper land use is the cause of different forms of environmental degradation. This paper sets out to quantitatively analyze the spatio- temporal dynamics of landcover and landuse patterns in Ndu Sub-Division with emphasis on land for tea cultivation in a bid to provide useful information to stakeholders on the environmental and socio economic signatures. The methodology consisted of three phases; the first phase handled data acquisition, vectorization and satellite image processing. This was followed by field work, aimed at verification of ground truth, collection of GPS waypoints, GPS tracks and attribute data. The third phase consisted of post field activities, comprising of restitution and validation of data, map production and analysis. The findings show that between 1988 to 2018, Ndu Sub Division experienced a drop in farmlands and savanna vegetation by 1.9% (from 60882.7 to 58616.6ha) while forests, built-up areas, tea parcels and small holder schemes witnessed an increased by 1.1% (18109.7 to 18500.9ha), 39.7% (13184.4 to 3051.5ha), 5.2% (619.85 to 688.27ha) and 100% (0 to 73.2ha) respectively. Such dynamics have been accompanied by both positive and negative imprints. On the positive side, the Ndu Tea Estate is a catalyst in rural livelihood transformation and development. The participation of the local populations in the activities of the estate has led to income improvement and poverty alleviation. However, land tenure disputes, labour abuse characterized by low wages, poor living conditions for unskilled workers and job insecurity are glaring. On the environmental side, bush fires, environmental pollution through chemical spraying, fertilizers and deforestation are common.</p> Ndi Roland Akoh, Nfor Kelvin, Ojuku Tiafack ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater and Its Effect on Human Health: Case Study of Baramati Tehsil Area, India <p>Baramati Tehsil is the rural part of the Pune district which have an arid to semi-arid region. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the people living in this area. The groundwater is being removed from a dug well and borewells in the study area for drinking purposes. The present study studied, fluoride from Dug well water of the Baramati Tehsil area. A total of 15 groundwater samples of dug well were collected in post-monsoon (POM) winter 2015 to pre-monsoon (PRM) summer 2017 for four seasons by using standard methods of American Public Health Association (APHA). The various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium (Ca<sup>2+</sup>), Magnesium (Mg<sup>2+</sup>), Sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>), Potassium (K<sup>+</sup>), Bicarbonate (HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>), Chloride (Cl<sup>-</sup>), Sulphate (SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>) and Fluoride (F<sup>-</sup>) were determined using standard procedures of APHA suggested for determination of the water quality for drinking purpose. The results obtained from the analysis was used for interpretation of fluoride and other ions concentration and the effect on human health. Results obtained indicate that the fluoride concentrations in POM and PRM were within the maximum permissible limit of WHO and BIS recommended for drinking. World Health Organization (WHO 2006) has fixed a safe limit of fluoride from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/l in drinking water.&nbsp; The maximum fluoride concentration in the study area was 0.68 mg/l while the minimum was 0.12 mg/l and the average fluoride concentration was 0.41 mg/l in all four seasons. The drinking water intake with fluoride content less than 0.5 mg/l can cause tooth decay. The groundwater of all wells was suitable for drinking purposes without treatment for fluoride removal at the time of analysis.</p> R. P. Dhok ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Urban Growth on Landuse/Cover in Umuahia, Abia State Nigeria <p>Understanding land use/landcover change (LULC) dynamics is very important in sustainable land resource management. This is especially so for developing countries of the world where majority of the people depend heavily upon natural resources for survival. In this study, moderate spatial resolution Landsat images were freely downloaded from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) archives for 4 decadal dates of 1991, 2001, 2001 and 2021 for Umuahia town, which became capital of Abia state of Nigeria in 1991. The images were analyzed in ERDAS Imagine 14 and ArcGIS 10.2 software environments to generate LULC statistics for the 4 dates. Post classification comparison algorithm was used to generate LULC change trends from 1991 to 2021. Key informants interviews and direct field observations were used to identify the main drivers of LULC change in the area. The results show that, the town has undergone significant LULC changes since its designation as Abia state capital in 1991. The extent changes for the various LULCs over the 30 year period (1991 to 2021) have been Built-up (+233%), Bareland (-34%), Woodland (45%), Uncultivated Farmland (-62%), Burnt Woodland (630%) and Agricultural land (-25%). Water Body did not undergo change over the period. It was concluded that though urban growth has promoted some degradation trends in the town, it has promoted increases in urban woodland areas which could go a long way in promoting climate change mitigation, as well as human health and comfort in the town. It was recommended that there is the need to promote deliberate reforestation efforts boost development in urban woodlands.</p> Sani Abubakar Mashi, Clement Didi Chup, Solomon Chinaedum Agoha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Incidence of Land use Change on Flooding and River Bank Erosion in Ngoketunjia Division, North West Region, Cameroon <p>Man in his unlimited quest for a good life through varied activities and land use changes have become an important geomorphic agent. Based on this assertion, this study was designed to examine the implications of land use changes on the incidence of flooding and river bank erosion in Ngoketunjia Division. The two-stage random sampling technique was used to administer questionnaires to 384 household heads who were predominantly farmers and occupants of flood prone areas. High resolution Landsat images of 1980 and 2016 were vectored, treated, and analysed in ArcGIS and used in conjunction with Google Earth images to delimit the bank line of a segment of the Noun River. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r) and the Spearman Rank Correlation coefficient (rho) were used to test the hypothesis of the study at 95% confident level. A significant positive correlation was found between the incidence of flooding and agricultural land use as well as between the incidence of flooding and settlement. The coefficients of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) of both correlation analyses revealed that agricultural land use contributed 60% of variability in the incidence of flooding while settlement shared 39.6% in the variability of its rank. An association was also noticed between some land uses and river bank processes. Mass movement and bank undercutting were found to be most dominant in cultivated areas and least in woodland areas. Geospatial analysis further revealed that between 1980 and 2016, a surface area of 2763m<sup>2</sup> was eroded by the Upper Noun River within the approximately 4.59Km long segment delimited for the study as the gallery forest and wetlands of the area gradually gave way to farmlands and settlements. This gives an annual bank erosion rate of 76.75m<sup>2</sup> within the segment during the 36 years’ period. The study recommends effective structural approaches to river bank stabilization, deepening and straightening of river channels while checking excessive upland degradation to reduce accelerated surface and river bank erosion.</p> Sunday Shende Kometa, Dereck Mbeh Petiangma, Edwin Mua Kang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analysis of the Molodensky and Kotsakis Ellipsoidal Heights Transformation between Geocentric and Non-Geocentric Datums Models <p>The non-availability of ellipsoidal heights of local geodetic Datums has made it necessary for the application of ellipsoidal heights transformation models to the available global ellipsoidal heights to obtain their respective theoretical heights in local Datums. It is required to know the accuracy, as well as reliability of any model of interest before its application. For that reason, this study comparatively analyses the Molodensky and Kotsakis models for the transformation of ellipsoidal heights between geocentric and non-geocentric Datums to determine the reliability of the Kotsakis model. The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data of the used stations were processed in World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) datum to obtain their global geographic coordinates and ellipsoidal heights. The coordinates, ellipsoidal heights and the transformation parameters between WGS84 and Minna Datums were applied to the Molodensky and Kotsakis models to compute the Clarke 1880 theoretical heights of the stations. The Molodensky model was used as a reference to which the Kotsakis model ellipsoidal heights were compared to obtain the Kotsakis model ellipsoidal heights discrepancies, as well as residuals. The residuals were used to compute the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the Kotsakis model. The computed RMSE, as well as reliability of the model is 1.244 m. The study concluded that the low reliability, as well as accuracy of the Kotsakis model might be as a result of the two rotation datum shift parameters in it as they are the main differences between the two models.</p> S. O. Eteje, V. N. Ugbelase ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Review of the Status of Rothschild’s Giraffe Sub-Species Population in Africa <p>Africa is the cradle of the world’s giraffe species and the sub-species that keep evolving with more conservation approaches. However, the population of Rothschild’s Giraffe (<em>Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi</em>) has been impacted at different sects in the wild. The aim of this paper was to review the status of Rothschild’s giraffe in Africa. A desktop descriptive review approach was used through perusal of different scholarly articles on giraffes.&nbsp; From the existing literature, this review exposes the effect of human effects on giraffes, climate change extremes on wildlife, ecological and significance of wildlife, and socio-economic impacts of communities on giraffes. The existing literature shows the impact of climate change extremes on giraffe habitats, with notable droughts, triggers of diseases, and unfit habitat migrations. Conservation of wildlife has to deal with socio-economic and ecological issues that are complex and, most of the time, overwhelming. We recommend the need for community engagement in conservation of wildlife resources and the development of climate prediction models to better understand climate extremes that happen and affect giraffe habits and population.</p> George Njagi Gathuku, Cecilia Gichuki, Innocent Ngare ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000