Open Access Short Communication

Factors Determining the Formation of Toponyms of the Kola Peninsula

M. Sysolin, A. Kulakovskiy

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i9630

A map of toponyms of the Kola Peninsula has been compiled and analyzed. The factors that determine the distribution and evolution in time of the areals of Russian, Finnish, Saami and Norwegian toponyms are:

  • Natural conditions and, above all, the distribution of rivers, lakes and mountain ranges that influenced the migration of peoples;
  • The specifics of the economic activity of the population: fishing, maritime trade, reindeer husbandry, industrial development of mineral deposits;
  • Political factors: changing state borders, attracting or vice versa expulsion of foreign colonists, forced Russification.

In the process of evolution, toponyms of different nationalities could interact with each other in different ways: somewhere “hybrid” Russian-Saami toponyms arose, somewhere Russian, Saami and Finnish toponyms turned out to be “mixed” and closely coexisted with each other, forming "integral" areals, and somewhere there was a complete replacement of toponyms of one nationality by toponyms of another.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Groundwater Bearing Zones Using Geoelectrical and Electromagnetic Techniques at Tourah Area, South of Cairo - Egypt

Fardous M. Zarif

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i930369

The complex geology of Tourah area, south Cairo is a serious challenge for groundwater exploration, where the risk of unsuccessful groundwater drilling excavation for industrial purposes is well dressed, raising the need for better geophysical subsurface detection and characterization approaches in terms of water bearing and aquitard zones. Datasets from the study area were acquired using integrated geophysical techniques comprising of one Dimensional Vertical Electrical Soundings (1D VES) and one Dimensional Transient Electromagnetic (1D TEM) as well as two-Dimensional Electrical Imaging (2D ERI) which was restricted to the available spreading space as well as subsurface infrastructure noise. The results of 1D VES and 1D TEM soundings detected three to five geoelectric layers used to generate geoelectrical cross sections and maps of resistivity, thickness, and depth to water bearing zone. Moreover, the 2D ERI inversion profiles were able to image the first three layers and the depth of the water bearing zone [A] with significantly greater resolution due to their higher lateral and vertical resolutions compared to the traditional 1D VES and TEM interpolated cross section. The integration of the three geophysical methods displayed a smooth distribution of both marly limestone and fractured shaly limestone and claystone bands water bearing zones [A and B].  Resistivity values of the water bearing zone [A] ranges from 0.1 to 24 Ω m, with average thickness of 4 to 12 m, and depth to water of 1.5 to 13.6 m. In addition, [zone B] is the main water bearing zone of fractured shaly limestone and claystone bands (2 to 14 Ω m) which is detected at deep depth of 40 and 75 m. Two normal fault systems inferred from 1D interpretation are considered responsible for local recharging of the main Eocene aquifer over the study area. In conclusion, the outlined water bearing thickness as well as limited sources of groundwater recharge indicate that these water bearing zones may not provide a sustainable supply for the industrial development purposes in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Index Mapping of Land Capability for Residential Land Use at Abakaliki Area, South East Nigeria

Augustine Akunne Onunkwo, Uche Felix Ikechukwu, Eucharia Chika Enebe

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i930370

The Search for residential land use option at Abakaliki area in Ebonyi state, Nigeria was carried out using Geographic Information System (GIS). Some laboratory experiments were incorporated to delineate some complementary information for the study. Ten determinants as capability factors were selected to develop thematic maps for over-lay analysis using software incorporated in Geographic Information System (GIS). The percentage influences of these determinants were also considered to facilitate the interpretation of the results. An Arch view model builder was employed in the over-lay analysis. The result produced the composite map where the residential land use zones were isolated, towards sustainable land use for residential purposes in the area. The residential land use option occurred at the NE-Eastern zone in the North west, South west and South east locations of the study area respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

GIS Based Planning of Forest Road Alignment in Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India

S. Veeramani, V. Anoop, M. Ramesh Babu, A. P. Sunilbabu, Manu Sathyan

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 26-37
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i9629

In hilly places, constructing and building forest roads requires a variety of economic and environmental criteria. To develop a solution that minimize construction, maintenance, and adverse environmental effects, road management must take into account as many alternative alignment options as they can. The idea of this research was to plan the network of forest roads in the Periyar Tiger Reserve's mountainous region using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). These techniques were applied using the study area's slope, aspect, Elevation, NDVI, drainage and susceptibility to landslides datasets. In addition, the road network created using the GIS-MCDA approach was contrasted with the existing road networks. The key elements that affect the road network in the research area were found, and the necessary maps were produced and categorized. The maps were graded using MCDA to determine the weight of both useful aspects as the next step in determining the significance and role of the aforementioned elements in the cost of road building. Second, using the Arc GIS 10.4 weighted overlay analysis tool, a forest potential map for road building was created by overlaying the weighted maps of the influencing elements. Thirdly, the competence of a map was divided into Six categories: very high, high, moderate, low, very low and Restricted roading Suitability. Finally, using a weighted overlay method to combine the road network and road planning potential map, the existing road network was analyzed. The findings of this study indicated that the majority of existing roads were located in high and moderate road Suitability. A small percentage was located in low road Suitability, which can be taken into account for alignment. These results suggested that the design of forest road planning in hilly areas can be more precisely accomplished using the multi-criteria evaluation method. Similar method as used in this study can be applied to other forested sites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling the Determinants of Using Matengo Pits in Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change and Variability: The Case of Mbinga District, Tanzania

Sifuni Nikombolwe Lusiru

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 46-54
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i9632

Aims: This study was undertaken to find out what determines the adoption of Matengo pits in order to adapt to the impact of climate change and variability.

Study Design: The study adopted a quantitative research design. The design allowed collection of a wide range of numerical data, covering the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and their households, farm characteristics and institutional factors. These data were important in finding out the determinants of using Matengo pits.

Methodology: The study was conducted in Mbinga District, south-western Tanzania, because of the predominance of the pits. Three wards, which constituted about 10% of all 28 wards, were randomly selected and one village from each ward was selected to represent the other villages. Data were collected using structured interviews with systematically selected respondents from the sampling frame, which comprised all the heads of farmer households. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to find out the determinants of practicing Matengo pits.

Results: The findings indicated that slope of the land was the most important factor that determined the use of Matengo pits. This was based on the Wald value of 42.846, which was greater than all the other Wald values and the p-values of 0.000 at a 95% confidence level. Other significant determinants of using Matengo pits were sex of the household head (p-value = 0.000), farming experience (p-value = 0.002), knowledge of Matengo pits as a strategy for adapting to climate change and variability (p-value = 0.004) and the size of a household (p-value = 0.014).

Conclusion: Matengo pits dominated the steep slopes of the study area, where they were introduced for soil conservation purposes. Low practicing of the pits were observed in the low land areas because some farmers had no knowledge about the usefulness of Matengo pits in their areas. Besides, the strategy is adopted differently by different sex, whereby male headed households were mostly practicing Matengo pits than their female counterparts. This is attributed to difficulties involved in digging the pits among the females and low income to employ other people to dig the pits. Further, farming experience and knowledge about the usefulness of the pits in adapting to climate change and variability increased the rate of practicing the strategy. Regarding the size of a household, small household size reduced adoption due to small labour force to engage in digging the pits.

In view of these findings, it is argued that knowledge of the usefulness of Matengo pits for adapting to the impacts of climate change and variability and availability of financial resources can help to overcome the barriers to practicing Matengo pits. As such, the Government, Non-Governmental Organisations and Community-Based Organisations should provide education about the usefulness of the pits and fiscal resources to motivate more famers in the district and other areas to adopt Matengo pits so as to improve their adaptive capacity, food security and the general socio-economic development.