Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Current Alterations to the Estuarine Ecosystem in Southwest Nigeria

Adeyinka M. Olusanya

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i830364

The estuarine ecosystem provides services that are economically and ecologically indispensable, and these services offer support to human well-being. However, uncontrolled human activities have altered the ecosystem goods and services provision, thus resulting in numerous irreversible ecological losses in the wetlands. Globally, studies have used many approaches and paradigms to manage estuarine ecosystems, yet a limited management mechanism exists in the Nigerian estuarine ecosystems. This study investigated the human dimensions of the alterations of the estuarine ecosystems in Southwest Nigeria over 20 years and used the result to inform decision-making. This study also used remotely sensed datasets (Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared (OLI/TIRS) and Enhance Thematic Mapper (ETM)) from the United State Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Explorer as references to determine the estuarine ecosystems coverage and loss. The reference datasets were combined and overlaid on the Nigerian wetland data to conduct a change analysis. Maximum Likelihood Classification in ArcGIS was conducted to determine the ecosystem coverage and loss. The study also conducted a qualitative assessment of the concerned management agencies to understand the questions of the environmental, ethical, governance, economics, decision making and policy implementation that shape estuarine ecosystems management in the study area. The result of this study indicates that 6405 hectares (38.1%) of the estuarine coverage in 2001 has been depleted in 2021, and management activities are traditional, nonsequential, and deficient. The drivers of alterations identified are mainly anthropogenic activities and climate change. The implications include loss of valuable fish species, pollution, habitats and biodiversity loss. Therefore, this study recommended the Ecosystem-Based Management approach to determine all essentials of the success or failure of ecosystem goods and services supply, resource use efficiency, and stability of estuarine ecosystems in Southwest Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geomorphological Mapping of the Meruoca Mountain Range in the State of Ceará, Brazil

José Falcão Sobrinho, Bruna Lima Carvalho, Vanessa Campos Alves, Nayanne Barros Souza Fernandes

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 13-19
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i830365

The present research is the result of the geomorphological mapping project of the Serra da Meruoca located in the northwest of the state of Ceará, having as objective to map the relief based on Ross taxonomy [1]. Geomorphological mapping is one of the main methods and products of geomorphological research, contributing to the understanding of the dynamics of the relief, considering that it presents itself as the stage of human activities. The materials and methods consist of the stage of bibliographic review, systematization of information and generation of cartographic products, followed by analysis and interpretation. The results and discussions present the physical characterization of the area followed by the classification of the relief up to the third taxonomic level. Thus, the systematization of geomorphological information brings important contributions to the geomorphological mapping of the Morphosculpture of the Meruoca Crystalline Massif, which has no research of this nature. The mapping effectiveness was evidenced with the aforementioned methodology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Waste Management in the Oil and Gas Industry in Guyana: A Qualitative Study

Michelle James, Shaneice Camacho, Renée Fraser

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 20-39
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i830366

This research focuses on the management principles of the oil and gas waste from Exxon Mobile and Tiger Rental Guyana, and possible environmental and health challenges for the people of Guyana. The COVID-19 pandemic changed the trajectory of the face-to-face data collection process. Subsequently, the data was collected through an online questionnaire process between Exxon Mobil and Tiger Rentals Guyana. The directors of the waste management department and the employees of these two companies who work together participated in the questionnaire process. The researchers used a Qualitative Study approach to determine how waste is disposed of and treated at the Stabroek Block Exxon Mobile Operation in Guyana's oil and gas industry. The Tiger Rental Guyana, a Waste Management Company is the company responsible for the management process of waste and the sustainability of the environment. The Ground Theory qualitative approach was implemented for the data collection process, which begins by scrutinizing, classifying, and amalgamating the data of the various sources including the online questionnaire reports from the senior stakeholders of Exxon Mobile and Tiger Rental Guyana. The data collected from these companies for Guyana Petroleum’s offshore waste management process revealed that the method and practice used are in line with the Guyana rule and regular requirements for oil and gas exploration in Guyana. They are safe and viable for the environment and populace of Guyana. The Findings revealed that the most employed techniques used onshore are incineration, separation, thermal unit, stabilization/ solidification, container cleaning, and wastewater treatment implemented by Exxon Mobile. Conversely, Tiger Rental Guyana, (TRG) employs three similar methods to Exxon Mobil of incineration, separation, and stabilization. TRG also employs the use of charcoal filters and vertical infrared technology. It was discovered that the offshore research revealed that these methods are carefully thought through, taking into consideration the environmental impacts. Therefore, the researchers conclude that the strategies implemented and used were safe and viable for the environment and populace of Guyana. The waste that is not transported by Tiger Rentals Guyana is collected and treated at Exxon Mobil’s facility offshore. This research aimed to identify the exploration and production practices of Exxon Mobil and Tiger Rental Guyana waste management practices in Guyana. Waste management is an important process in this industry because of the implications for humans and environmental health. Though history has proved that measures are usually in place for best practices in the Oil and Gas Industry, companies around the world have shared their challenges, best practices, and economic benefits that came with a price tag. They have recommended that companies engaged in petroleum and related activities must be encouraged to plan and implement effective strategies for the preservation of the environment and human livelihood. Thus, the researchers recommend that the companies covenanted with Guyana would continue to employ high ethical policies and principles that are reliable and robust to protect and prevent hazards to the health and wellbeing of the populace, and the environment of Guyana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatio-Temporal Classification and Prediction of Land Use and Land Cover Change in Finima Nature Park Bonny Island, Nigeria

R. E. Ubaekwe, U. D. Chima, F. S. Eguakun

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 40-53
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i830367

Land Use Land Cover (LULC) is naturally dynamic, thus change is inevitable. However, its changes have greatly increased to a frightening proportion as a result of high rate of anthropogenic and natural processes. Consequently, land use and land cover classes of Finima Nature Park were classified and changes were observed within the last 33 years (1987 - 2021) and predicted for the next 33 years (2021 – 2054).

Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to achieve the goal. Coordinate points were collected from the various land use and land cover classes as a reference data for accuracy assessment of the classification. Landsat imageries of 1987, 1999, 2010 and 2021 were acquired from The United States Geological Survey (USGS). The imageries were pre-processed, processed and classified into various LULC classes using Maximum Likelihood Classification in Idrisi and ArcGis10.5. Confusion matrix and Cellular Automata (CA) Markov Chain algorithm were used for accuracy assessment and prediction of LULC respectively.

Results showed that dense vegetation, sparse vegetation, bare land, and water body were the main LULC class in 1987 and 1999, while dense vegetation, sparse vegetation, bare land, water body and built up were observed in the years 2010, 2021 and 2054. The Kappa Coefficient values were 93%, 81%, 83% and 90% for 1987, 1999, 2010 and 2021 respectively; an indication of strong accuracy of the classification. Generally, there were changes in land use and land cover within the study periods. However, changes were mostly observed in the areas of water body and bare lands closer to the sea coast. Hence, the sea was implicated as the major driver of land use and land cover change in the park. The slight decrease in dense vegetation and sparse vegetation from 1999 to 2021, and 2021 to 2054 underscores the importance and benefit of conservation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Watershed Management on Stream Flow and Build-up Water Storage in Parasai-Sindh Watershed of SAT Region, India

Reena Kumari, Babloo Sharma, Pratibha Kumari

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 54-62
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i830368

Aims: The study of runoff and base flow estimates and their impact on groundwater status in the semi-arid region of India is typically limited. We are focused on runoff and base flow in the Parasai-Sindh watershed, and impact of rain water harvesting structure on harvesting of stream flow and change ground water status.

Place and Duration of Study: The study site is located in Jhansi district (Bundelkhand region) of Uttar Pradesh and started from 2012 and completed at end of 2013.

Methodology: Total six rainwater harvesting structure (RHS) or checkdams were constructed on the drainage line from ridge to final outlet of watershed. Daily rainfall data was observed with automatic rain gauge during the study period. For discharge estimation, the runoff gauging station was installed at the outlet of watershed. The runoff and base flow of watershed were estimated by subtracting barometric pressure from the stage recoded by Baro and Diver install at outlet to get actual stage of runoff passing over it. The water pressure head of 200 randomly selected open wells were monitored on monthly interval.

Results: The geological area of watershed is 12.46 km2 and it’s main stream is found to be of 4th order. The results indicate that out of 49.2 mm rainfall event, runoff and base flow at outlet of watershed were found as 20.98% and 4.19%, respectively. Whereas, runoff and base flow were recorded 14.12% and 11.18%, respectively against 86.2 mm rainfall. Total runoff and base flow produced from outlet was recorded as 16 and 7%, respectively. The water head pressure of open wells was improved 92.45% after the rainy season as compared to before the rainy season.

Conclusion: The findings of the study are useful and show relationship between rainfall: runoff and estimation of base flow separation from the total discharge at the outlet of watershed. The estimation of volume of runoff which was harvested as surface runoff during rainy season and it's indirectly effected groundwater recharging through construction of RHS in ephemeral drain of Bundelkhand region.