Open Access Original Research Article

Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Osubi Metropolis, Niger Delta, Nigeria using DRASTIC and GIS Techniques

E. S. Chinemelu, S. O. Adeoye

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i630353

The vulnerability to contamination of the aquifer at Osubi, Niger Delta, was assessed in order to develop a foundation strategy for safeguarding its groundwater resources using the DRASTIC model and geographic information system (GIS). Using GIS, data corresponding to the seven DRASTIC model parameters were collected and translated into seven thematic maps. The DRASTIC map was created using these maps, which describe the depth to water level (D), net recharge (R), aquifer media (A), soil media (S), topography (T), influence of the vadose zone (I), and hydraulic conductivity (C). The results obtained from this study showed that 7% of the area was classified as very-high vulnerability to pollution, 18% was classified as high vulnerability, 60% was classified as moderate vulnerability and 15% as low vulnerability. The most vulnerable areas occur around waste dumpsites, and some septic systems in residential areas. Policies should be put in place to make it easier to close possible pollution sources in high-vulnerability areas, such as open dump sites, leaking underground storage tanks at fuel stations, effluent discharge from industries, and pit latrines/sewage disposal units.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different Satellite Images for Urban Land Use Analysis: A Case Study of Greater Manchester, United Kingdom

Rukevwe Aliogo, Felix Emeka Anyiam

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 11-27
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i630354

Background: The complexity of an urban area makes mapping it very difficult as its surface materials are highly spatial and spectrally diverse. This study evaluates the problems associated with remote sensing of urban land cover types.

Methodology: Three satellite image sensors; Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), Landsat TM and colour infrared were used to investigate their potential in mapping and characterizing land cover in a part of Greater Manchester. Supervised and unsupervised image classifications were used to map urban land use and cover.

Results: The satellite image sensors and their accuracy were statistically tested to see if there is a significant relationship between them. The colour infrared image was the best in discriminating among different types of land cover with an overall accuracy of 80% followed by the Landsat image with an overall accuracy of 61% while the DMC image had the least potential in discriminating among different types of land cover with an overall accuracy of 55%.

Conclusion: The colour infrared image is the most suitable for urban land cover analysis as the misclassifications are minimal compared to the other two and the features can be vividly recognized due to its spatial resolution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conservation Balance between Man’s Need and Ecological Functions in Ajei Forest Area, Momo Division, Cameroon

Gilbert Zechia Mofor, Kougoum Piebeng Ghislain Noé, Asagaya Mac Junior Ajoh

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 54-64
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i630357

Understanding the place of man in the ecology range has always been an important issue in geography. Most humans depend on agriculture and natural resources for their livelihoods. Owing to this relationship, most salient consequences trigger disconnects between man and ecological services. This paper examines the contribution of land use patterns on the improvement of human needs and ecological services in Ajei forest area. The methodology consisted of primary and secondary data: questionnaires, focus groups and interviews. Landsat Satellite Images (LANDSAT, 1986,2020 and ASTER, 2003, 2007 and 2020) were used respectively. Secondary data were sourced from diverse specific literature backgrounds. The data gotten were analyzed using descriptive approach, presented in the form of graphs. Findings revealed that, in Ajie area, man highly depends on diverse resources for survival. Land use indicators further show that: agriculture (37.4%) is the principal drive of land use patterns followed by population growth (31.3%), settlement (10%), knowledge on increased ecological conservation (8.3%), accessibility (8%) and knowledge on increase deforestation (5.1%) while government, traditional establishments, NGOs and individual, were the main local pro-conservative minded stakeholders. In spite of the above pointers, there were land use challenges faced by the community which consisted of topography variations, slope steepness, institutional disparity, socio-economic and environmental constraints. The paper suggests that, to attain a balance between man and ecological functions, there is a need to embrace a veritable conservation tactics by both stakeholders: a more comprehensive ecosystem management strategy. Implement land-use and land-management practices that are compatible with the natural and potential of the area, while emphasizing much more concern on adaptive management approach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geostatistical Analysis for Monitoring and Modelling Atmospheric Pollutants

Oliver Chinonso Mbaoma, Akinyemi Olufemi Ogunkeyede, Adedoyin Ayorinde Adebayo, Solomon Ebiye Otolo, Matthew Ikpinima

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 65-76
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i6631

Urbanisation and industrialization are predominant indicators of regional growth with some adverse effect especially in ambient air quality often prone to contamination by emissions. Vehicular emissions have been identified as a consistent air pollutant in urban areas. However, meteorological conditions such as rainfall also affect air pollution concentration level. The aim was to identify relationships between a meteorological factor like rainfall, vehicular load and atmospheric pollutant concentration in Effurun City, Delta State. In-situ sampling of CO, VOC and NO2 and Geostatistical analysis were used to obtain concentration level and relationships between the selected variables which was used to predict spatial trend for efficient monitoring. From our results, it was observed that Iterigbi, Ages Gas and Okuokoko Junctions had the highest concentration of VOC, NO2 and CO respectively. At residential areas, Iterigbi had the highest concentration of VOC and NO2 while Okuokoko had the highest concentration of CO.

Open Access Review Article

Anthropogenic Impacts on Wetlands of Kerala, India: A Review of Literature

Yomna P. Zainulabdeen, H. Nagaraj

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 28-38
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i630355

Kerala is blessed with numerous wetlands including rivers, streams, mangroves, backwaters, estuaries, canals, paddy fields, reservoirs, lakes and ponds. Wetlands are an integral part of the state and they endow man with numerous ecosystem services like purification of water, provision of food, flood protection, shoreline stabilization, support to biodiversity, recharge of underground water etc. At present wetlands are under threat as they are victims of population pressure, rapid urbanization and negligent land use pattern. Wetlands of Kerala have become polluted, fragmented and reclaimed for other purposes. If this trend continues, man is endangering not only humans but also other creatures on earth. Scientists and environmental conservationists realized the importance of wetlands and have studied the adverse effects of human activities on wetlands and have also suggested mitigation measures to conserve these fragile ecosystems. This paper is a review of published literature on the anthropogenic impacts on wetlands of Kerala and measures for their conservation.

Open Access Review Article

Epistemology of Postmodern Cartographic Research and Engineering of Scientific Knowledge Building

Meva’a Abomo Dominique

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 39-53
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i630356

The new technologies revolution has driven an epistemological rupture between modern and postmodern cartographic research. It has fertilized a new engineering of construction postmodern cartographic knowledge based on a fivefold epistemological foundation: naturalist (descriptive epistemology), normative (prescriptive epistemology), operational (experimental epistemology), critical (radical epistemology) and activist (Militant epistemology). In practice, postmodern cartographic research is implemented from the paradigm of epistemological syncretism with four postures: constructivist (qualitative variable), post-positivist (quantitative variable), systemist (quantitative and qualitative variables) and interventionist (quantitative and/or qualitative variable). The epistemological positioning here consists in adopting one of these postures and implementing its specific methodological approach. The present study thus attempts to level the deficit of epistemological framing of postmodern cartographic research, which innovates with criticality, radicality and activist-commitment, while perpetuating axiological neutrality and methodological rigor. These innovations thus seal the break with the neutrality or knurling of university activism in the modern era. In other words, cartographic postmodernism opens a new era of academic activism for radical change.