Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Oil Pollution Intensity in Niger-delta, Nigeria Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

Peter Chibuike C., Ezeogu Chibuike M., Oyintare Brisibe

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Volume 26, Issue 11, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i11641

There has been an increase in the level of oil spillage across the Niger Delta region of Nigeria since the advent of crude oil exploration. The effects of oil pollution cannot be overemphasized, as it is not only detrimental to human health but also to the ecosystem at large. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) are veritable tools in Environmental management. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was used as GIS and RS tools to determine the intensity of pollution caused by oil spillage in the Niger Delta area for the past decade (2010-2020). The land sat imageries of the study area were acquired and NDVI analyses were performed. Five NDVI types were used with the equation NDVI=(NIR-Red)/(NIR+Red). The total land mass covered was 109,582 sq.Km. The results showed that in 2010, Healthy Vegetation was 37,352 sq. Km, which was 34 percent of the total land mass. In 2015, Poor Health vegetation accounted for the highest land mass with a total of 41,976 sq. Km, while Moderate Health Vegetation had the lowest land mass of 12,830 sq.Km. In 2020, Poor Health Vegetation accounted for the highest land mass of 38,324 sq.Km representing 35 Percent of the total land mass while Increasing Vegetation had 13,452 sq.Km with 12 Percent making it the lowest NDVI type for the year.

From the results, there was evidence showing of increased Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) negative values across the years in the study area. This was an indication of the high level of pollution.

There is a need to mitigate oil spillage to its barest minimum in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics and Implications for Landscape Restoration in Cameroon’s Western Highlands

Solange Akhere Gwan, Zephania Nji Fogwe

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Volume 26, Issue 11, Page 11-28
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i11642

Land use – the way human beings employ the land and its resources is at the centre of scientific and policy interests in rapidly evolving landscapes of sub-Saharan Africa. An example par excellence of such landscapes is the Western Highland Region of Cameroon. This paper analyses the implications of land use changes in seven communities of the Western Highland Region of Cameroon. In doing so, it specifically: (i) examines the pattern of land use/land cover change between 1984 and 2021, and (ii) analyses their environmental implications. A mixed-methods approach involving the use of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods was employed. This specifically involved the survey of 300 households using semi-structured questionnaires, the conduct of nine (9) group discussions and twenty-two (22) key informant interviews. Secondary data were obtained through Municipal Council Reports. The data were analysed descriptively (using tables and charts) and spatially using maps. The study used archived satellite images to map land use dynamics over the study area from 1970’s to present. In this light, NASA’s Landsat satellite images from USGS earth explorer was acquired for the periods of 1979, 1984, 2000, 2013 and 2021 for diachronic analysis of land cover/use in the study area. The results revealed that land use/land cover changes were rapid, involving a significant reduction in grassland (72%), forests (48%) and bare areas (19%) between 1984 and 2021. This was followed by a correspondent increase (211%) in the built-up area, and in agricultural space (22%). Additionally, land use/land cover changes have led to a change in local climatic conditions, a decline in crop and livestock output, and rising food costs. The study recommends that international NGOs operating in this area should engage with communities on aspects of sustainable land management. Relevant government ministerial departments and municipal agents should emphasise the need to respect land use plans, to limit the uncoordinated colonisation of slopes for farming and settlement. Besides establishing the pattern of land use transformation in this landscape, this paper provides new insights on the environmental effects of land use/land cover dynamics in Cameroon’s Western Highlands. The results demonstrate novelty through its further identification of food security issues linked to land use/land cover dynamics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Borehole Water in Eket, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

E. W. Nsi, E. E. Ikpe, E. Uwanta

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Volume 26, Issue 11, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i11643

The study entails determination of Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in borehole water of Eket Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This was assessed using standard analytical methods. The samples were collected in triplicate from the study area with a control station. The areas were Ikot Ibiok and Atabong in Eket L.G.A while the control station was at Aka in Uyo L.G.A. The samples were extracted with hexane using liquid-liquid extraction method followed by subsequent clean-up using column chromatography. The determination of TPH was with the aid of gas chromatography fitted with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) while The THC was determined using U-V Spectroscopy. The results showed the variations of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from 784.395 ± 0.07 to 1120.500 ± 0.05 mg/L. While THC ranges from 938.21 ± 0.08 to 1,583.294± 0.02 mg/L. The average amount of TPH and THC in the water samples collected from all the sampling stations were generally higher than both the DPR limit (50 mg/L) and federal ministry of Environment (FMEnv.) acceptable standard of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in water. This indicates a serious impact of oil industrial activities on the area. Hence, our findings have indicated evidence that the borehole water samples from the study area in Eket L.G.A is under a pollution threat and underscore the need for early remediation if adverse health defects are to be prevented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Assessment of Flood Vulnerability of Developed Properties in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria

M. O. Ugwu, E. I. Elenwo, A. A. Obafemi, O. S. Eludoyin

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Volume 26, Issue 11, Page 47-61
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i11645

The study assessed the flood vulnerability of developed properties (DP) in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. The study made use of DP data obtained from the open street map, and the combination of landuse/ landcover map obtained from Landsat imagery of 2020, soil texture data, elevation data, and proximity to the active river channel. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Findings showed that 44014 DPs were estimated in Port Harcourt Metropolis. Results showed that the spatial extent of flood lowly vulnerable areas in Port Harcourt Metropolis was 60.78 sq. km (13.22%), moderately vulnerable areas were 259.72 sq km (56.51%) and highly vulnerable areas were 139.14 sq. km (30.27%). Furthermore, 3977 (9.04%) of DP were lowly vulnerable to flood, 34754 (78.96%) were moderately vulnerable to flood and 5283 (12%) were highly vulnerable to flood in the study area. The study can be concluded that the number of developed properties in the Port Harcourt Metropolis varied based on different flood vulnerability levels as more of them were found within the moderate vulnerability levels. Based on the findings, the study recommended that all the developed properties lying in the high flood vulnerability level should be relocated to better locations or at least conform to ways of guiding against the effect of flood on the developed properties; and also periodic enlightenment of the effect of flood to the public would help a lot of preventing people from constructing their house in the highly and moderately flood vulnerable levels.

Open Access Review Article

Resilient Infrastructure as a Tool for Flood Risk Management in Nigeria: A Review

Michael Attah Onugba, Abraham Onugba, Margaret Eke Bamigboye

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Volume 26, Issue 11, Page 37-46
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i11644

Flooding is a disaster which may occur naturally or as an effect of human activities. Flooding which is a global hazard has resulted in devastating effects on humans and the environment. Thousands of lives are lost and properties worth several millions of dollars are destroyed annually due to flooding in Nigeria. Various Flood Risk Management (FRM) approaches have been employed to manage this menace in Nigeria resulting in little success. This paper highlights the types, causes and impact of flooding in Nigeria as well as evaluate the efforts at local and national levels in FRM. After due considerations of performance and lapses of past efforts, the article advances the resilient infrastructure approach as a formidable and sustainable FRM option for Nigeria.