The coastal area of El Jadida District contains one of the most important monitoring networks of seawater intrusion along the Moroccan Atlantic coast. This network is constituted of six boreholes lies at about 1km from the coast and arranged with space between 10 and 13km. Boreholes are drilled by the mixed drilling technique using two different methods; the rotary rock bit in the mud and the down the hole hammer drilling. The drilling has allowed us to recognize an unconfined aquifer formed by Quaternary sandstone and two confined aquifers formed by Cenomanian limestone and Paleogenian sandstone. A measurement campaign of the electrical conductivity by multi-parameterics probe had allowed locating a seawater intrusion into each borehole, the high value of the electrical conductivity reached its 56 mS/cm allowing concluding that Ghyben-Herzberg relationship was improved. The calibration of the geophysical data by the networks allows us to highlight the seawater extension in the Sahel.
This paper examines the pattern and problems of industrial water supply in Nnewi urban area. Fifteen industries within the urban area were purposefully selected and investigated. Relevant data were collected through the use of oral interview, structured questionnaire, and field observations. The data were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA was used to isolate major underlining dimensions responsible for inadequate water supplies to the sampled industries. Twenty eight (28) predictor variables were used in the analysis. The results revealed the total water need of the sampled industries as well as the gap between supply and demand. Public water supply schemes in the urban area are incapacitated to the extent of near total collapse Poor service delivery and limited service coverage has forced industrialists to resort to alternative supply sources, as opposed to supply from state water utilities. Five of the analyzed variables returned the highest mean values indicating that they had the strongest influence on industrial water supply in the study area. Three principal components were extracted; PC1 represents the influence of inadequate water infrastructure. PC2 and PC3 indicate the influence of poor service delivery and the absence of suitable alternative water supply sources respectively. Improvement in public water supply in Nnewi is a matter that requires immediate attention and the use of innovative strategies as suggested in our recommendations.
Droughts are major natural disasters for many parts of the world. Dry areas where the precipitation pattern is markedly seasonal, or is otherwise highly variable, are the most susceptible. The Iranian Prairies are often subjected to drought, and it is sometimes catastrophic Therefore, understanding the drought conditions through the prediction and zoning of drought extents can considerably decrease the damaging risks of this phenomenon. This research has been done with statistical correlations of 5 meteorological drought indicators and monthly rainfall data of 15 synoptic and climatological stations in Lorestan province and its surrounding. Statistical years weren't the same and the statistical period is between 1951 to 2010 years. Drought events are determined with the use of indicators such as: Standardized Precipitation Indicator (SPI), Percentage of Normal Indicator (PNI), Deciles of precipitation Index (DI), Chinese Indicator (CZI), Z-scores Standardized Indicator (ZSI) and sequences. Dual correlation coefficients in all stations of this province showed relatively high values, According to indicators as (SPI, PNI, DI) the driest years were: 1964, 1966, 1973, 1990, 2008 and 2010.
This research demonstrates the integrated use of magnetic-gradiometric and resistivity methods in mapping subsurface structural features to explore for ground water bearing zones in Wuro Yakubu area, Song Adamawa State in northeastern Nigeria. The research was carried out between March 2010 and December 2010. Acquisition of ground magnetic data was achieved using G-856-MagTM Proton Precision Magnetometer in the gradiometric mode, while resistivity measurements were done using ABEM SAS 1000c terrameter. Interpretation of ground magnetic and resistivity data were carried out using WinGlink and IX1D resistivity softwares respectively. Vertical magnetic gradient results in the study area revealed anomaly as high as 10 nT/m, while results of resistivity survey revealed three to four geo-electrical layers, with layer resistivity ranging from a minimum of 9.11 â„¦-m to a maximum of 2329.6 â„¦-m. Layer thickness ranges from 0.51 m to 35.62 m. Qualitative analysis of total magnetic intensity and the vertical gradient maps shows a prominent belt of anomalies striking in NW-SE direction and was interpreted to be due to the presence of fault, fracture or shear zones. Resistivity work across this zones shows that the third geo-electrical layer comprising of fractured/weathered basement with a resistivity range of 100.17-531.21 â„¦-m, and thickness 27.29-35.62 m is a promising zone for ground water accumulation.