Open Access Short Research Article

Is There Any Need for a Dike to Save Melbourne from the Rising Seas?

A. Parker

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 139-157
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2015/17463

The Australian government is still basing policy on the concept that sea level will rise by 1.1 meters along the Australian coastline by 2100. The Department of the Environment has proposed a 10 billion dollar dike to save Melbourne from the hypothetical rising sea. In reality the tide gauges of Victoria are recording average relative rates of rise of less than 1 mm/year, in perfect agreement with the National average. At this rate sea level will rise by only 8.5 cm by 2100 but even this estimate may be too high. The worldwide average sea level rise, based on only tide gauges of sufficient quality and length, is only about 0.25 mm/year, with zero acceleration over the last few decades. Such a rise can be dealt with by local adaption, as in the last 100 years, and there is no need for any engineering structures, let alone the proposed 10’billion dollar scheme with its accompanying environmental and social problems.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Wheat Stripe Rust and Its Geospatial Variation in the Jhelum District of Pakistan

Sheikh Saeed Ahmad, Shazia Iftikhar, Taiba Afreen, Rabail Urooj, Muhammad Nawaz

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 110-116
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2015/16025

Foliar rust disease is a real threat to the wheat crop of Pakistan from few last years. Humid conditions are very favorable for the proliferation of the stripe rust especially in the rain-fed region of the Punjab. This piece of research is done to find the hotspots of the stripe rust in the Jhelum district. Two surveys were conducted for the primary and secondary data collection. Thirty two samples were collected. Threshold values were obtained by using ArcGIS 10.2 application to generate baseline hotspot maps. No one village or district could be highlighted as hot or cold spot, as it changes every year. Increased temperature and heavy rainfall played a very crucial role in spreading of this disease. Intensity of rainfall ranges from 94.6%-140% in month of February which highly thrives the stripe rust by providing moist conditions. Optimal temperature range for wheat crop growth was found as 12°C to 25°C. Hailstorms also badly inflicted damage to the wheat crop especially at some places at the Dina tehsil of Jhelum district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Implication of Open Dumpsite on Groundwater Quality in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria

E. Asouzu Obianuju, Joel Efiong

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 117-125
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2015/16144

Aim: This study investigates the implication of the waste dumpsite on the groundwater quality.

Place of Study: The study was conducted in Calabar Metropolis, the Capital of Cross River state of Nigeria.

Methodology: 22 boreholes were selected for the study. Data on these boreholes location, depths and static water levels were obtained from Water Agencies in Cross River State and confirmed during field work. These data were used to develop the groundwater flow map of the study area in a Geographical Information Systems environment. The interpretation of the groundwater flow was done in relation to the major dump site in the City.

Results: Static water level in Calabar metropolis ranged from 0.28 m to 49.6 m with a mean value of 15.83 m and a modal class 0 to 3.99 m. The groundwater flow direction is such that water flows from the northern side down south because of high pressure gradient and high elevations in the north.

Conclusion: It is therefore possible for dissolved waste to be transported through the direction of flow and infiltrate the aquifer, thereby contaminating the groundwater. A new site has suggested in the southern part of the city with coordinates 426679.186E and 554807.648N for the relocation of the dumpsite. Further studies should be conducted to examine the level of contamination of the groundwater by this dump site.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Tectonics Activities of Sirch Basin by Morphometric Indices

Mojgan Entezari, Nasrin Ranjbarmanesh, Narjes Salari

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 126-138
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2015/15209

Sirch basin, in the North of Kerman Province lays vicinity of Naiband fault zone. Approximately there is not where in the world during the years that is not affected by tectonics variation. So, evaluating and investigating tectonics condition, active tectonics processes and consequences of them is very important for human being activities such as design and formation of cities, powerhouses, dams, Industrial foundations, etc. Therefore by using them dangers and losses of these active processes could be minimized. For analyzing tectonic activities of Srich basin, we used morphotectonic reviews to evaluate morphometric indexes have been used to ascertain the tectonic instability/stability. To assess tectonic activities in the area geomorphic indices namely, mountain front sinuosity Smf, the scale of width of bottom of valley to its height VF, curved integral of hypsometry IH, asymmetry of canals in basin area AF, symmetry of transverse topography, index of main river swirls S, and index of evaluating pressure(density) of canals P have been used. In order to calculate these indexes we used digital elevation model, topographic map with a scale of 1:50,000, and geologic map of area (1:100000). Results from morphometric analysis are stated as relative index of active tectonics (RIAT). This index of tectonic activities put an area in four categories of activities: low, medium, high, very high. This index for basin shows extreme rate of activity.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Solar Flare on 10 September 2014 was Associated with Two F/A-18C Hornets Crashing in the Western Pacific Ocean

Jyh- Woei Lin

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 158-162
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2015/16620

Two F/A-18 Hornets from Carrier Air Wing 17 crashed at 5:40 (UT) while attempting to board the aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson 466 km west of Wake Island on 12 September 2014. A large geomagnetic storm caused by a solar flare occurred at 17:46 (UT) on 10 September 2014. It is doubtful that this large geomagnetic storm may be a potential reason for the crash. It is difficult to make this case with 100% certainty, and it may have been remotely possible that the storm was the cause.