In most peri-urban communities of south east Nigeria, shortages of domestic water supply relative to demand is a common feature of such areas. This is because most of these peri-urban communities usually fall outside the urban water supply projects physical boundary, thus forcing the people who live in such areas to consume water from doubtful sources which most often contain pathogens found in human faeces. Apart from consuming water from doubtful sources, most inhabitants of this area also travel long distances to collect it or pay dearly to purchase from water vendors. The study was therefore undertaken to determine the factors necessary for safe water supply in such areas. Towards achieving this objective, 2000 questionnaire were designed and administered to households in the area between January and June, 2013. A total of 15 factors were isolated and analysed in 10 peri-urban communities of the region. The major analytical tool employed was multiple regression analysis with which we were able to determine the relative importance of each variable using SPSS version 20. Based on the result obtained, important determining factors for safe and sustainable water services namely open defeacation near the water source, dominant type of land use near water source and distance to refuse dumpwere discussed in terms of their implications to the formulation of needed policy that will ensure improvement in supply of the service to meet demand.
This work analyses jointly aeromagnetic and ground radiometric data over Song region of Hawal Basement Complex. The area is marginally located with respect to the Yola Rift, an arm of the Benue Trough. The area comprises of gneiss, migmatite, granitoids and basalt as the main lithologies. Residual magnetic map was produced from the total intensity data using statistical analysis. Both magnetic and radiometric data were contoured using surfer 9 surface mapping software. The tectonic setting of the study area is manifested in complex lithologies and structures which have been observed in the field and reflected in magnetic and radiometric anomalies. NW, NE, E-W, and N-S lineaments have been identified on the magnetic and radiometric maps. These are interpreted in terms of lithological emplacements, fracture and foliation directions in the basement. The magnetic and radiometric data have revealed some features not observed in the field. It is suggested that mapped lineaments would serve as guide in sustaining local quarrying industry in the area.
The objective of this study is to integrate frequency and event based rainfall-runoff models in order to derive some conclusions on the role of basin physiography on the frequency distribution of peak flows. Annual peak flow series of the hypothetical basins with alternating physiographic characteristics, such as drainage area, and length and slope of the main channel are generated through a deterministic rainfall-runoff model. Sample statistics and frequency distributions of the generated annual maximum storms of random effective durations and of the resulting peak flow series are investigated. It was found that the average and the standard deviation peak flow decreases as the length of the main course increases, while the average and standard deviation of peak flow increase as the drainage area and harmonic slope increases. Besides variation coefficients and skewness coefficients of the peak flow samples exhibit a random behavior.
The paper examines the impact of human’s activities along the River Ngadda channel, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. The primary data include field observation and measurement of various activities along the river’s channel where their coordinates, slope angles and distances from the channel were taken using GPS and measuring tape. Secondary data were generated from topographic and soil maps. The data were analyzed through the use of ArcGIS 9.3 and Surfer 7.0. Descriptive statistics was also used. The result shows that the slopes along the River Ngadda channel range from 0° to 30° with distances of 8 m to 77 m. The findings also revealed that settlement, farming, quarrying, mining, excavation, grazing, dumping of refuse, construction, fishing and open defecation are among the various activities observed along the River Ngadda channel. Geomorphic processes such as splash, sheet, rill and gully erosions were observed. These geomorphic processes are occurring at an accelerated rate due to the human activities along the River which expose the soil to both wind and water erosion. Some significant environmental consequences of these activities are gullying, landslides, floods, water and land pollution. The paper recommends that there is need for enforcing existing laws prohibiting settlement in close proximity to the River channel and designation of specific areas for excavation, quarrying and mining as against the present random practice. Planting of trees along the River Channel should be encouraged to check unnatural rates of geomorphic processes. Awareness campaign on environmental hazards associated with settling along floods prompt areas should be carried out at the grassroots level.
The study explored new strategies and technologies being used by cities around United Kingdom and China to mitigate climate change. So as to enable other cities in the world to emulate similar strategies. Hence, the study reviewed the adaptation strategies of five cities. One of such strategies is the “sustainable Glasgow project” aimed at reducing Glasgow’s carbon emissions through improved energy management and the development of new integrated low carbon energy systems for the city. Similarly many organisations in Dundee set up a “carbon reduction targets”. The Lewisham Council established a systematic approach to energy monitoring, based on electronic data retrieval systems. China although a non-Annexe1 country, also hosted the largest number of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and also generated the largest number of certified emission reduction (CERs) in the world.