Open Access Minireview Article

Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction in Pakistan: Where are we Standing?

Bilal Ahmad Munir, Muhammad Hanif

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2015/18706

The article aims to highlight the issue that resists to enhance the resilience to climate change and to reduce the vulnerability to natural disasters in most of the developing countries like Pakistan – a country extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and natural hazards. Due to similarities and overlapping of CCA and DRR spheres, the related policies could not be implemented so far. In Pakistan role of CCA and DRR authorities show lack of coordination with stumpy attention and investment in both areas. The perpetuation of vulnerabilities, after the occurrence of repeated natural disasters, also reveals lack of lesson learning processes in the concerned organizations. In Pakistan, as among one of the natural disasters’ affected countries, the debate substantiates the results in high recommendations to integrate CCA and DRR that would be helpful to surmount the mystifications in decision making.


Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Industrialization on Fish Species Composition and Diversity in Warri River, Niger Delta, Nigeria

Ogaga Augustine Aghoghovwia, Olusegun Ayodele Oyelese, Elijah Ige Ohimain

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2015/18636

Changes in water quality caused by industrialization and technological advancement, affect fishery resources. The Warri River like many other water bodies in the Niger Delta are experiencing side effects in terms of pollutant build up and destruction of fishes resources. Samples were collected from 9 sampling points namely, stations (A, B, C, D, E, F G, H and I along the Warri River. The fish species were obtained over 24 months from landings of local fisherfolks every forth night with prior arrangement. Fish species found in the respective sampling stations were recorded. Fish species diversity indices were carried out using Margalef, Shannon Wiener and Simpson indices. Condition factors (KF) were also computed. Result show that 34 fish species were recorded in this study, which was lower than the 91 spcies reported previously in 1994. A total of 20 – 29 fish species were recorded and the total number of species recorded during the study period ranged from 2905 – 6789 with the areas of highest industrial activities (stations B, C, and D) having the least diversity. Industrial activities that are linked to the declining fisheries include oil and gas exploration, dredging, waste disposal (solid wastes and effluents), jetty and port activities. Hence, sustainability of the fisheries is threatened by industrial activities. The continuous monitoring of the quality of river and enforcement of strict water pollution prevention measures is therefore suggested.


Open Access Original Research Article

Weather Forecasting: Traditional Knowledge of the People of Uttarakhand Himalaya

Piyoosh Rautela, Bhavna Karki

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2015/19016

Aims: The objective of this study is to highlight and document indigenous weather forecasting knowledge of the people of Higher Himalaya in Uttarakhand so that the same could be improvised and used effectively for disaster risk reduction in remote and inaccessible areas.

Study Design: The study is based on interactions with the community members in identified habitations of the four valleys selected for this research in Uttarakhand Himalaya.

Place and Duration of Study: Four valleys in the state of Uttarakhand, India are taken up for the study; Johar, Byans and Niti valleys together with upper reaches of Bhagirathi valley. The data is collected between June 2012 and January 2015 through fieldwork carried out in the area.

Methodology: The present study is based on the response of 871 persons of the selected 73 Higher Himalayan villages of Uttarakhand, recorded using a specially designed semi-structured questionnaire. Besides this, perception of the people is also gathered through focused group discussions, in-depth interviews and key informant interviews. Special care is taken to select elderly people for response as they have memories of longer time span and 50 percent of the respondents are more than 50 years in age. Special care is also taken to ensure gender balance.

Conclusion: Traditional weather forecasting is used by the people of the study area for local level decision making in pursuits related to travel and agriculture as also for capturing timely information related to possible hazardous events. It is perceived that the traditional knowledge of the people is based upon uniformity of weather pattern that has lately been disturbed by climate change. People are therefore finding it increasingly difficult to use this knowledge effectively. The elderly persons however have faith in this knowledge. Backed with their experience they are able to improvise and include more reliable indicators for weather prediction. Formal recognition is however a must for these practices to be better utilized by the masses as also for planning process. Integrating this knowledge with the modern science can help in better understanding of various climate related parameters and in managing climate risk.


Open Access Original Research Article

Petrographic and Geochemical Characteristics of Metacarbonate in Northcentral Nigeria; Potential Applications in Industries

Jimoh A. Onimisi, Kamar S. Ariffin, Hashim B. Hussin, Norlia BT. Baharun

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2015/19622

The mineralogical characteristics of metacarbonate from the Obajana area were determined with combine petrographic and X-ray diffraction methods. These methods revealed that the marble samples contains major proportion of calcite with minor quartz, dolomite, graphite, pyrite, olivine and phlogopite as accessory minerals. Also, analytical data from inductive coupled mass plasma spectrometry (ICPMS) showed an average SiO2 of 2.39%, high CaO content of 54.89%, with low MgO content of 1.1% and   iron oxide content of 0.33%. Trace element composition, indicated that the metacarbonate is rich in Ni, Rb, Sr and Ba compared to Co, Ga and Nb in the metacarbonate. These characteristics make the metacarbonate suitable for major industrial use especially the production of high grade precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC).

Open Access Original Research Article

Geo-Spatial Mapping of Air Pollution in Benin City, Nigeria

Verere Sido Balogun, Oluwagbenga, O. Isaac. Orimoogunje

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2015/20359

The study investigates the distribution and mapping of air pollutants in Benin City using land use and administrative maps, a Global Positioning System (GPS) device, Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and field sampling. Air sampling for the study covered a period of six months, between mid-October 2013 and mid-April 2014. Air pollutants of concern included particulate matter (PM0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 µm) and carbon monoxide (CO). Particulate matter was measured using a hand-held particle counter, while CO was measured with a single gas monitor (T40 Rattler). Five sampling points, coordinates of which were determined using the GPS device, were selected based on stratified sampling technique and they represented the five land use types monitored in the study area (i.e. institutional, agricultural, commercial, industrial and residential). Sampling was carried out twice weekly in accordance with the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi India. Sampling height was two meters above ground level. Field data was inputted into a GIS data base from which interpolation and spatial correlation analyses were carried out. The results showed that commercial and industrial areas were characterized by higher concentration levels of pollutants, while institutional and agricultural areas were characterized by less of same. The study recommended appropriate actions by town planning authorities in addressing the challenges of air pollution resulting from improper zoning systems, adjacent placement of incompatible land uses, inadequate barricading of high air polluting land uses and non compliance to land use permitting process.