The gullies represent the most complex and destructive way of soil degradation relative to linear erosion. In this context, the goal of this study is to address the impacts of gullies in the longitudinal profile of the Zé Açu Micro-watershed, at the Settlement Project (SP) Amazonian Village, Parintins municipality, Amazon State, Brazil and, as consequence of that, the impacts to the family farmers living there. Methodology: a) Cognitive Map; b) Geoprocessing; c) Field work from 2010 to 2012. Discussion of the results: Twelve gullies were mapped at the edge of the first order channels’ headwater in an area of extensive livestock. The upper stream is the more affected by the colmatation of tributary channels and the siltation of the mainstream. As consequence, in the river’s ebb tide (August to December) there is the scarcity of water (direct impact on domestic use, irrigation, transport, quantity of fishes; Indirect impact described as no potability because of the high charge of suspend sediments). These impacts affect 07 traditional farming communities (416 families). This problem leads to the vulnerability of local farmers and impacts can be seemed on their economy, social life and culture. Nevertheless, Zé Açu Micro-watershed is looking for its geomorphological reorganization, compatible with the new conditions that are imposed to it. The on-going changes, however, doesn’t permit recovering the same ecosystem, due the loss of soil, fauna and flora.
This study characterized the Owu drainage basin in southwestern Nigeria using geospatial approach with the objectives of examining the morphometry in relations to flood vulnerability of people in the region. Data used were the topographic maps and satellite imageries of the region. The data were analysed by both hydrological and geographical information techniques for basin delineation, stream ordering and digital elevation modelling. Results showed that the drainage basin is characterized by about 429 stream segments, and mean bifurcation ratio of about 1.9, and that about 23% of the entire basin area is susceptible to severe flooding. The study concluded that livelihoods and people in the flood vulnerable areas are endangered, and recommends preparedness for potential flood hazards in the area.
Hawking is a common practice which hampers urban dignity. The study assessed “who”, “why”, “where”, and “when” the hawkers of sachet water carry out their business; in view of examining the associated physiological and psychological effects of their operations. 32 questionnaires were administered randomly to 32 sachet water hawkers. Oral interviews, direct observation and recording as well as series of secondary data sourced from relevant literature were used to buttress the data obtained via questionnaire administration. The research findings showed hawking of sachet water is most prominent along Obafemi Awolowo way. The hawkers are composed of male (24%) and female (76%), literate (58%) and illiterate (42%), hawking from morning till late in the evening. Using ANOVA with F-statistic computed as 0.09 at 0.05 alpha-level, it was ascertained there is no significant difference in the problems resulting from hawking sachet water in the 11 locations (clusters) sampled. This affirms the proposition that the mode of operation and disposal of the water sachets is the same in all parts of Ikeja. Furthermore, pragmatic measures were laid down in order to discontinue the ills associated with hawking of sachet water in the study area.
This research uses participatory spatial multi-criteria analysis for the assessment and prioritization of vulnerable ecosystems wherein, protection from anthropogenic activities could help to ensure the continued provision of ecosystem services in Mezam, Cameroon. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to build objective hierarchies and comparisons were made, using a scale of absolute judgments that represents how much more, one element dominates another with respect to a given attribute. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. From this, priority options for the different criteria and alternatives were calculated. Using this information and related spatial data in the decision support wizard of Idrisi GIS software, delineation of the different ecological systems was done. With an overall consistency ratio ( a Pricetag criteria (0.398) was the most important criterion in the site selection process, followed by Pressure (0.299), the Response (0.218), and the State criterion (0.085). As long as experts believe that their judgments regarding the importance of the criteria and their performances for the ecosystem types using each criterion are valid, the AHP priorities show that the watersheds are preferred. The resulting map can act as a tool in helping decision makers visualize choices and evaluate land-use alternatives. The results address the importance of local stakeholder participation when spatial planning and management of multifunctional cultural landscapes are realized.
The paper examines hydrocarbon oil spill Cleanup and Remediation from four perspectives namely historical, regulatory, scientific, and socioeconomic considerations. The historical perspectives show a gap of 12 years between oil production and environmental policies that would guide and enforce Cleanup and Remediation. Historically, official records indicate between 3000-5000 major spillage sites from over 9000 spills, with many undocumented ones waiting to be detected. The Regulatory aspects are evaluated at marginal performance with respect to Cleanup and Remediation. The lack of any publicly accessible documented evidence of Cleanup and Remediation certificates for any site indicates failure in the enforcement of regulatory best practices despite the expectations from the reforms in developing a separate institution such as NOSDRA. This is supported strongly by the inaction to start cleanup of the Ogoni sites nearly four years since the UNEP report was concluded. The Science of Cleanup and Remediation is shown not to have kept pace with the rate at which contaminated sites are being generated. Only in less than 0.2% of sites (10 sites out of over 5000 sites) are records of attempts at Cleanup and Remediation. Many of the scientific best practices have never been tested in the different ecosystems and habitat types including groundwater. This could have driven innovation in the discovery of new technologies that would make remediation indigenous and cost effective especially as Nigeria ranks as the inland polluted capital of the world. The socioeconomic aspects are analyzed as a complex interplay of interest between the local population, NGOs, the IOCs and the government agencies responsible for Cleanup and Remediation. A strong arbitration component is suggested where reforms in policy should include enforceable incentives and penalties designed into existing and new commercial transactions.