Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution and Migration of Heavy Metals in Peenya Industrial Area, Bangalore, Karnataka, India- A Case Study

C. R. Ramakrishnaiah, N. Manasa

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/26361

The present study is aimed to investigate the distribution and migration of the heavy metals in both ground water and soil profile in Peenya Industrial area. The Peenya Industrial area is considered to be one of the largest and oldest Industrial Area in the South-East Asia. Hence in this research work studies are carried out to know the level of heavy metals in ground-water, and soil profile, degree of pollution due to Industrial activities and water quality index of the study area. In this study a total number of 42 ground water samples were collected from different locations of Peenya Industrial Area and analyzed for various Physical and Chemical properties such as pH, Alkalinity, Chloride, Calcium, Magnesium, Total dissolved solids, Total hardness and Nitrate in the Laboratory using analytical methods. The concentration of heavy metals viz. Iron, Chromium, Nickel, Copper, Cadmium and Lead were analyzed using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer).Water quality of the study area is determined using a tool known as Water Quality Index (WQI). The WQI for the study area ranges from 35.29-7787.40. The high values of WQI is  due to high values of Chromium, Nickel, Cadmium, Iron, Lead, TDS, TH, Calcium, Magnesium, Nitrate, Chloride, and Alkalinity. The total numbers of 24 Soil samples were collected to investigate both distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil profile. The concentration of heavy metals viz. Iron, Chromium, Nickel, Copper, Cadmium and Lead in soil were analyzed by Mehlich-I extraction method and determined using AAS. The present analysis reveals that ground-water and soil of the study area needs some degree of treatment and should be protected from future contamination.


Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental and Public Health Effects of Plastic Packaging Debris in Accra, Ghana: Assessing a Policy Role for Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)

Jeffrey N. T. Squire

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/25541

Exponential growth in urban populations has steadily transformed the volume and composition of wastes generated in developing countries in the past few decades. One of the most visible aspects of such transformation is the ubiquity of plastic packaging residues in the waste stream. In many cities in the developing world, the use of polythene bags for packaging everyday commodities such as; food, drinking water and groceries is commonplace, resulting in the generation of massive volumes of plastic debris on a regular basis. In juxtaposition however, the waste management milieu is characterized by a myriad of inefficient practices including; poor collection; open dumping and rudimentary incineration practices. Against this backdrop, the present study examined the environmental and potential public health impacts of plastic packaging in Ghana. The study was undertaken in the Accra Metropolitan Area, the capital and largest city in Ghana which covers a total land area of almost 200 square kilometres and a population of over four million people including permanent residents and daily commuters. Data was collected by means of interviews, informal group discussions, site observation as well as a comprehensive review of official government documents. The findings depict an entrenched culture of plastic packaging resulting in the generation of debris on a regular basis. In juxtaposition, the management of such debris is characterized by a high degree of ineffectiveness, resulting in pollution of ecosystems in the study area. The consumption of water packaged in mini plastic sachets in particular raises major public health concerns around contamination and the possibility of transmitting infectious diseases such as cholera. Further, current regulatory arrangements were found to be vague and incomprehensive and fail to delineate the issue of plastic packaging debris.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Study of Surface Radio Refractivity in Awka, South Eastern Nigeria

Ikeh U. Chinelo, Okeke C. Chukwunike

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/25880

This work investigates the radio refractivity over Awka, South Eastern Nigeria using meteorological parameters of surface air temperature,  pressure and relative humidity collected from  2013 – 2014 respectively, using Davis weather station vantage pro 2 (with Integrated Sensor Suite, ISS) positioned close to the ground surface. The data were logged at 30 minutes interval continuously for each day during the period. Hourly, daily and monthly averages of radio refractivity during dry and wet seasons were calculated from the data obtained. The result indicated that the radio refractivity during the wet season is greater than the dry season. This is as a result of variation in meteorological parameters such as relative humidity and temperature which cause the radio refractivity to vary at different times of the day; while the pressure variation seems to be insignificant. However, results of the refractivity gradient shows, that the propagation conditions have varying degree of occurrence with super-refractivity conditions observed to be prevalent throughout the two year period. The month  of January has the highest value of refractivity gradient while least of about -63 N- units per km occurred in July and propagation implication bearing in mind that the lower the gradient (that is more negative) the more super refractive is the troposphere, and the better the propagation conditions. The results obtained from this work is useful to radio engineers for improving  VHF/UHF terrestrial links based on clear- air considerations.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Temperature Variation in Nigerian Cities

S. I. Efe

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/25669

The study assesses the effects of CO2 emissions on temperature in Nigeria. To actualize this, CO2 and temperature data were generated from field survey of Nigerian cities. Testo 350 flue gas analyzer was used to determine the CO2 in the urban atmospheric environment, while the Castro 4000 was used to obtain the temperature from same sites where the air samples for the CO2 were taken from. The data collected were presented with statistical diagram and the simple regression analysis was used to determine the effects of CO2 on the temperature of these cities. Paired t test was used to compare the mean of CO2 emissions and temperature in the built up areas and those of the surrounding rural areas. The results showed 31.5°C mean temperature and 37.88 MMT (Million Metric Tons) mean carbon emissions from 1987-2006 in Nigeria. There is 27% increase in CO2 emissions in the industrial and traffic congested areas than those of the natural parks and surrounding rural areas, and 7.3°C rise in temperature distribution in the industrial and traffic clogged areas than the natural parks and rural areas respectively, and thus showed that Nigerian cities are 28% warmer than their country sides. It also revealed that a rise in Nigeria temperature is significantly dependent on increase in CO2 emissions, as such CO2 emissions accounted for 96% occurrences of urban warming experienced in Nigeria cities. Based on this, the study recommends the adoption of carbon sequestration/carbon capture, green-city green roof approach, extinguish gas flaring, massive afforestation, and environmental impact assessment which will reduce the carbon emissions and lower the urban heat island experienced in Nigerian cities.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Three-dimensional Statistical Model of Karst Flow Conduits

P. Boudinet

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/26688

It already exists several three-dimensional models dealing with groundwater circulation in karst systems. However, few of them are able either to give a large scale prediction of the repartition of the flow conduits or to make a comparison with real field data. Therefore, our objective is to develop a three-dimensional model about the early formation of karst flow conduits and to compare it with actual field data. This geometric and statistical model is based on percolation and random walks. It is computational and can be run on a personal computer. We examine the influence of fissures (joints and bedding planes) of variable permeability and orientations on the development or early flow conduits. The results presented here correspond to computations up to 2015. Because of long runtimes, we focused on some particular stereotypical situations, corresponding to some particular values of the parameters. Regarding the conduit patterns, the opening and directions of fissures have the same qualitative influence in the model than in actual systems. Two other predictions in good accordance with real karst are that flow conduits can either develop close to the water table or deeper, depending on the distribution of permeable fissures; and that, when viewed in the horizontal plane, conduits don't always develop close to the straight line between inlet and outlet. From a quantitative point of view, in the case of weak dips, our model predicts a realistic relationship between the stratal dip, the length of the system and the averaged depth of the conduits. Eventually, we show that the repartition of conduits depends not only on obvious geometrical parameters such as directions and sizes, but also also on other quantities difficult to measure such as the probability of finding open fissures. The lack of such data doesn't enable, at the present time, a whole comparison between model and reality.