Open Access Short Research Article

Analysis of Access to Social Infrastructure in Rural Imo State, Nigeria

Ikenna Osumgborogwu

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/27675

Yearly, the federal and various state governments allocate stated amounts of money in their annual budget to capital projects. Most of these projects involve renovation or development of new infrastructural facilities. Availability of infrastructure in contrast to accessibility is often addressed in academic discourse, but one pertinent question remains, what is the use of an available social infrastructure if it cannot be accessed? This paper aims at analysing access to social infrastructure in contrast to availability in rural areas of Imo State, Nigeria. Questionnaire survey method and oral interviews were used to collect data on identified indices of accessibility to social infrastructure, income/affordability. Three variables of social infrastructure were used in this study; health care facilities, schools and leisure centres. Linear regression model of data analysis was used to analyse the relationship between access to social infrastructure and income level of respondents. The result shows a strong positive relationship between income and access to social infrastructure. This indicates that an increase in income brings about a commensurate increase in accessibility to social infrastructure.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Gully Erosion Progression and Vulnerability in Auchi Area in Edo State

Okeke U. Henry, A. T. Alaga, Eguaroje O. Ezekiel

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/26459

Soil erosion is one of the serious forms of land degradation in the Auchi area in Edo State. Efforts have been made to control the phenomenon but these have met with limited successes. Part of the problem is a poor understanding of the dynamics of the phenomenon in time and space. The general objective of the study is to evaluate the dynamics of Auchi gullies in the past three decades. The primary data were collected with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to obtain the coordinates of locations of gully sites in the study area while field work and measurements were carried out to determine the characteristics of the gullies. The secondary data include: 1:50,000 topographic map, soil and geology maps as well as multi date satellite imageries of the area including: LandSat TM of 1981 and ETM of 2001, 2006 and 2014. The geo-data sets were processed and analyzed using Geospatial techniques. The results of the computation reveal noticeable changes in the gully area between 1987 and 2014 with most area vulnerable to the gully progression. The study concluded that the gullies are active, expanding with alarming annual frequencies and positive magnitude of change, engulfing other land area with diverse use. This has increased the vulnerability of the entire area to gully erosion while adopted control measures are only successful in area with gentle slope and less hydro activity.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of the Harput Archeological Region by Means of the Landscape Architecture Discipline

Candan Kus Sahin, Esra Cetinkaya

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/27206

Aims: Harput is one of the first settlement places in Anatolia, Turkey, and its history dates back to 2000 B.C. So, Harput has experienced many invasions throughout its history. In this study, urban design and the protection concepts of historical heritages of Harput Township are examined.

Study Design: The research subjects were created by national and international sources related to Harput and its archeological reputation. The research findings are evaluated by using the tools of the landscape architecture discipline

Methodology: A number of stages have been followed to examine Harput’s historical heritage and archeological assets. These stages are;

· Conducting a comparative review of the past and present status of Harput and its vicinity,

· Tours of the historical assets  and a detailed analysis of those structures carried out on site,

· After all physical observations had been made of the region, literature information and previous studies were evaluated and then some recommendations are made for implementation of beneficial landscape architecture.

Results: Harput and its surroundings contain numerous monuments including a castle, sanctuaries, churches, mosques, and tombs that provide unique examples of art. However, due to its notable historical heritage, Harput and its near vicinity has already been proclaimed as a First Degree Archeological Site Zone. There are many structures belonging to former periods in Harput, which have succeeded to survive until the present day. These monuments vary in size and number. The following are some of the important historical structures that are still standing in Harput: Virgin Mary church, Surp Agop church, Harput (milk) castle, Grand (Ulu) Mosque, Esediye mosque, Alacalı mosque, Fethi Ahmet baba masjid and tomb, Mansur baba tomb, Arab baba masjid and tomb, Lady Sara (hatun) mosque, Kurşunlu mosque, Kale and Cemşit bey baths, and so on. Religious centers, archeological residues and monuments taking into account the architectural features that could be improved with landscaping. It became clear that landscaping and maintenance plans are necessary to improve aesthetic appearance of the region.


Open Access Original Research Article

Subsoil Conditions of Parts of Niger Delta Wetland, Nigeria

P. K. Wokoma, N. E. Ekeocha

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/25806

The subsoil conditions of Gbaran North Bank area, parts of the Nigerian wetland were evaluated using both disturbed and undisturbed soils, which were subjected to various laboratory tests adopting the British Standards methods, with the aim of establishing the subsoil conditions of the area as it affects use of the soils for various kinds of construction. The liquid limit recorded values between 37% and 50%, plastic limit range of 11% – 23% and attendant plasticity indices of 20% - 33%. The soils classified as highly plastic on the basis of their plasticity index and showed expansivity range of low – medium, while the swelling type was critical – non-critical. The soils recorded shear strength values of 39 – 42 KN/m2 with coefficient of consolidation Cv values of 0.4 – 30.5 m2/yr. The soils from the results showed tendencies towards expansion and therefore pose a problem to construction except precautionary measures are taken to ensure safety and durability of structures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting the Discharge Rate of the Streams – Case Study; Damour River Basin, Lebanon

Kamal Khair, Fatima Kassem, Nabil Amacha

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/28027

The distribution of precipitation on runoff, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge and the change of this distribution in response to human activities plays rather important role in the availability of water resources, especially in areas of Mediterranean climate. This study used data on the discharge obtained from six gauging stations along the Damour River and its tributaries, and rates of precipitation obtained from rain gauges located in Beirut belonging to LMS. The study used these data to evaluate the relationship between the precipitation and streams discharge, and to assess the ratios of runoff, evapotranspiration and infiltration. The study came up with the following conclusions: The rates of runoff and groundwater discharge for the whole Damour river basin could reach 70%, and the remaining 30% go mostly to evapotranspiration and submarine springs fed from this basin. The lag time between maximum rainfall and peak discharge of streams ranges between one and three month(s), and the longest lag time is exhibited by es Safa spring discharge.  High relief areas play a major role in shortening the lag time between maximum rainfall and peak discharge. The timing factor of precipitation events is rather significant and causes great differences in the ratios of discharge throughout the wet season. Finally, the runoff ratio is affected by the following factors: Underlying rocks, snow cover, steepness of the slope, vegetation cover, and timing of precipitation.