Anatolia is a region dominated by Turkish Islamic Civilization for nearly one thousand years. During this long period, the region has had a rich civilization growing under the rules of the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey especially Anatolian Seljuk Empire. Talas is one of the settlements of Kayseri which has one of the richest cultural heritages in Central Anatolia. Although Talas has a long history dating back to First Age civilizations, it has developed and been enriched after being settled by Turks. In this rich cultural area, Muslim Turks, Orthodox Armenians, and Americans who were conducting Christian missionary activities have lived together in a cultural structure where tolerance of each other especially emerged since the period of Ottoman Empire.
Residential culture is one of the most visible cultural characteristics of society, and this study has evaluated Talas with this in mind. Traditional Talas house’s research has been done from the point of cultural geography. Some suggestions were made on how to protect those houses, for example, to use them for tourism.
The standard method of measuring wellbeing or poverty is usually by associating poverty with material deprivation and describing the poor per incomes or nature of consumption. In other words, poverty is viewed in material terms as not having a sufficient level of income to pay for the consumption of adequate amounts of food, water, clothing, shelter, sanitation, health care and education. Only a few works have incorporated energy as an important aspect of poverty or wellbeing index. This study therefore attempts to reveal locational variations in energy wellbeing using household energy consumption in terms quantity, quality, type and expenditure across urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Ibadan region, Nigeria. Results show that an average urban household is better-off than its peri-urban and rural counterparts. Evidence also suggest that peri-urban and rural dwellers are more vulnerable to energy utilization related health risks and may likely hinder the country’s quest towards attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
An assessment of storage changes within the Cretaceous sandstones of Lokoja Formation constituting the sedimentary part of Lokoja and its environs was carried out using USGS GSFLOW-1.0 software to investigate reasons for water problems such as drying of streams and failure of wells commonly experienced in the area. Daily meteorological data from year 2001 to 2010, and hydraulic conductivity for the area were used as input for the model simulation. Model results indicate that storage in the watershed takes place in the soil-zone, unsaturated-zone and saturated-zone and that storage takes place at different periods in the storage zones. Three storage cycles were identified in each of the storage zones. Soil-zone storage is generally higher during the second and third cycles. Storage in the unsaturated zone is lowest in the first cycle with thickness of the zone decreasing to minimum in the second cycle as storage increases to maximum. Storage increased to maximum in the second cycle of the saturated zone with the first and third cycles showing negative storage changes as unsaturated zone thickness increased. Surface runoff, interflow, and groundwater discharge in form of springs contribute streamflow to the watershed. Failure of wells in the area is attributed to the geology and water loss to the surface leading to insufficient water reaching the saturated zone for storage.
Land use/land cover change studies are very crucial to understand how land conditions shifted and where changes happened. In central Ethiopia, most of the natural ecosystems have shifted to agriculture and human settlement. More recently, expansion of Eucalyptus woodlots has been a major land use/land cover change. Several land use/land cover studies have been done in various part of the country with different objectives. However, few studies have given emphasis on Eucalyptus expansion. This study was conducted to assess land use/land cover changes in the Meja River watershed in central Ethiopia from 1976 to 2015 with emphasis on expansion of Eucalyptus and farmers’ perception regarding the expansion. Satellite images of five periods with ten years difference were selected. The periods were selected systematically in such a way that they reflect the dynamics of political regimes and their land tenure policies. Landsat imageries (MSS, TM 5, ETM+ and OLI) of the year 1976, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015 were used and supervised classification with maximum likelihood algorithm was employed using ERDAS Imagine 2010. Socioeconomic survey using questionnaire was carried out by interviewing randomly selected 120 respondents. The study found that grassland and bush land decreased while cultivated and Eucalyptus land expanded throughout the 40 years period. Eucalyptus has expanded from less than1% in 1976 to 15.2% in 2015. Cultivated land increased from 24.3% in 1976 to nearly 40% in 2015. Grassland decreased from 30% in 1976 to below 20% in 2015. Bush land decreased from 41.7% to 18.7% during the same period. About 59% of the respondents still have the intention to plant more Eucalyptus; therefore 68% of the respondents expect more expansion of Eucalyptus in the future. Most respondents (71%) prefer planting to Eucalyptus than farming as it requires less labor, time and capital. In conclusion, the observed Eucalyptus expansion needs closer watch and scrutiny considering its positive but also potential ecological effects.
Aim: There is no doubt that the world is now under a serious threat from the environmental hazards due to the fact that the frequency and intensity of hydrological hazards such as floods have been increasing in recent years. Flood risk is a probability of loss which depends on three elements or concepts, namely 1) hazard, 2) vulnerability, and 3) exposure. A clear understanding and distinction between the three elements that create risk- hazard, exposure and vulnerability - gives the necessary information for factoring in most flood-related aspects. This paper focuses on developing a new method for measuring flood risk using the main indicators for geophysical exposure of the risk (percent built-up density, proximity to floodplains and elevation). The new method was afterward applied to study flood risk in Gombe Metropolis using Remote Sensing and GIS so as to achieve the set objectives.
Methods: The residential areas, streams were digitized, Multi-temporal satellite images were obtained from Land sat 8 Enhance Thematic Mapper (ETM) for 2014 and used for classification of Land cover/use type in the study area. Furthermore, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was also used to collect elevation data for the entire Gombe Metropolis residential areas. The classified 2014 land use/land cover type of Gombe metropolis was overlaid with the digitized Gombe Metropolis residential areas map. Subsequently, the Structured Query Language (SQL) functions and attribute table of the GIS Arc map was applied to calculate the area coverage for the percent of built up areas and building constructions within 50-meter stream buffer in Gombe metropolis.
Results: The result revealed a remarkable outcome necessary to mitigate flood risk and thereby improving the well-being of the vulnerable flood communities in the metropolis. The finding proves that seven residential areas in Gombe metropolis are within a very high to high flood risk zones. These residential areas include Government Residential Area/Gabuka, Jankai, Checheniya, Pantami, Barunde, Dawaki and Bolari/ Madaki. However, Tudun Wada, MUAK, New Developed Areas, Jekadafari, Herwagana and Urban Fringe residential areas fall within the moderate to low flood risk.
Conclusion: Thus, priorities for flood risk mitigations measures should be focused towards the very high and high flood risk areas in the metropolis.