Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of El -Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Phenomenon on Rainfall Variation in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

A. U. Shehu, S. A. Yelwa, B. A. Sawa, A. B. Adegbehin

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/27287

Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of El -Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on rainfall variation in Kaduna metropolis from the year 1973-2013.

Study Design: Precipitation data was sourced from NIMET (Kaduna airport) while Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly and Southern Oscillation Index data was acquired from the National Oceanographic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climate prediction centre's website.

Methodology: These were analyzed to determine the extent of variation between ENSO and Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (SSTA) and pattern of change in precipitation during El -Niño and non El -Niño years. Furthermore, the significant difference between rainfall amount of El -Niño and non El -Niño years was also determined.

Results: Results indicated that rainfall within the study area was highly varied during the period studied and there is no direct influence of SOI and SSTA on the rainfall variation in Kaduna metropolis as years considered to be El -Niño years brought about both surplus and deficit rainfall over the years. It was also discovered that the years within both El -Niño and non El -Niño were found to be associated with positive and negative anomalies which signifies surplus and deficit rainfall amounts respectively. The student τ-test indicates that there is no significant difference in rainfall amount of the El -Niño and non El -Niño years within the study period.

Conclusion: From the findings of this study, both the SSTA and ENSO can be inferred to have positive and negative impacts because they caused an increase as well as decrease in rainfall during El -Niño and non El -Niño years within the study area. It was therefore concluded that although ENSO is seen to have impacted on rainfall variability, it does not have direct influence on the total variation within the study area. However, both El -Niño and non El -Niño years show fluctuations in rainfall amount within the study area even though there was no significant difference in rainfall amount between the El -Niño and non El -Niño years within the period of the study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Mafic Doleritic Dykes at Mbaoussi (Adamawa Plateau, Cameroon, Central Africa)

O. F. Nkouandou, J. M. Bardintzeff, P. Dourwe Dogsaye, A. Fagny Mefire

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/28198

Giant mafic doleritic dyke swarms crosscut the Mbaoussi granitoid basement to the North of Ngaoundéré, in Adamawa plateau (Cameroon, Central Africa). The dyke swarm orientation might correspond to reworked Late Pan-African fault zones. Mbaoussi doleritic dykes display intergranular to ophitic and sub-ophitic textures and are mainly composed of clinopyroxene, plagioclase feldspar and Fe-Ti oxides. ICP-MS and ICP-AES geochemical data show both slight alkaline affinities according to total alkalis-silica contents and continental tholeiitic signature evidenced by Nb-, Ta- and Ti-depletions. Primary magmas suffered fractional crystallization coupled with assimilation of continental materials, to produce a sub-alkali basalt to trachybasalt to basaltic trachyandesite lava series. Low values (3-7) of (Ce/Yb)N suggest fairly high partial melting degree of the source. This source was probably the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, whose composition was close to fertile mantle component, yet Nb-Ta depleted after a former subduction.


Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Costs of Exploiting Solid Minerals in Nigeria: A Review

Samuel Mark Maton, Nengak Danjuma Marcus, Juliet Dingsten Dodo, Azi Dusu Bulus

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/26855

Mining of solid minerals has been a long time primary activity in Nigeria. The paper has reviewed a number of related works and discovered that mining of metallic minerals, particularly tin, columbite, iron ore and lead as well as mineral fuel like coal is on the increase in recent times. Those who engaged in mining the mineral resources actually do so, with the sole aim of improving their socio-economic condition through exploiting the products hence government gives support because exportation helps to boost the country’s economy and image among comity of nations. The once beautiful landscape of Nigeria suitable for agriculture has now become, not only disfigured but has even lost its ecological outlook as a result of extensive and intensive mining activities. The  paper  has  found  out  that  the indiscriminate mining has led to the destruction of vegetation, soil,  arable land, pollution of water sources and constitutes death trap to both human beings and animals. The paper has concluded by recommending such measures as embarking on organized tree-planting to stabilize tip-heaps of overburden, conversion of open ponds into fish ponds in order to augment the dietary requirements of the teeming population and the need for companies to prepare and forward statements of EIA to government before mining license could be issued for mining operation. The need for government to strengthen the existing minerals and mining Act of 2007 and the creation of solid mineral commission has also been advocated.


Open Access Review Article

Impact of Recycling Targets on the Calorific Value of Residual Waste Stream in Scotland

Elangovan Santhoshkumar, Omokhudu Gloria, Ayuba Daniel

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/28528

The UK's waste management had greatly changed due to the influence of the European Union (EU) waste hierarchy that gives preference to waste recycling and thus keeps Energy from Waste (EfW) next to recycling. In addition, the European Commission (EC) demanded its member states to comply with its framework targets associated with waste recycling and landfills with waste. Responding to the EC requirements, the UK increased its recycling rate over the past years through potentially improved recycling regimes. This had resulted in significant changes in the feedstock to EfW plant characterized by its Calorific Value (CV). This research focused on developing a model to test the impact of recycling on the Calorific Value (CV) of residual waste for energy recovery. The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) composition and the Zero Waste Plan in Scotland was used as case study under various recycling scenarios such as 50% recycling of food waste, paper/cardboard, plastics and glass. Results indicated that increase in the recycling targets resulted to a significant impact on the CV of the residual MSW. Recycling food wastes and glass did improved the CV of residual waste to 9.93 MJ/Kg and 8.20 MJ/Kg respectively with corresponding recycling rates of 48% and 61% respectively. Further, outcomes did indicated that plastic and paper material recycling gave a negative impact on the CV and revealed that such negative effect of plastic and paper recycling could be compensated by increased food and glass recycling strategies.


Open Access Review Article

Climate Change: Effects and Adaptive Measures in Africa

Onada Olawale Ahmed, Solomon Oluniyi Ogunola

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2016/26416

Climate change has constituted a global menace to standard of living in many countries of the world. The developing countries including the Africa continent are among the most susceptible to climate change impact. In order to ensure environmental sustainability, food security and socioeconomic growth in this region, strategic mitigation and adaptation to climate change impacts needs to be employed. This review paper highlights on climate change impact and adaptation in Africa.

Prolonged and intensified droughts has been recorded in Eastern Africa; unprecedented floods in Western Africa; depletion of rain forests in Equatorial Africa; and an increase in ocean acidity around Africa’s southern coast. As a result of these, food, health, water and energy security have been threatened, therefore undermining Africa’s ability to grow and develop.

Meanwhile, temporal migration pattern has been adopted in Sudan and Ethiopia as a way to adapt to recurrent drought; in adapting to floods, most western part of Africa have adopted building houses on stilts and cultivation of floating vegetable plots. Also, crops biotechnology developments have been applied to increase Agriculture production in many parts of Africa. However, the level of adaptation has not kept pace with the rate of climate change effects; it is important to develop sustainable ways through which the vulnerable in Africa will build climate change-resilient livelihoods. This will require substantial investment in: income diversification, disaster-risk management, empowerment of women and other marginalized social groups, provision of a reliable system of meteorological alerts, effective extension services and the establishment of independent networks of information exchange between and among communities across the region.

Climate change will have significant impacts on communities and livelihood. It is important to assist the vulnerable group by boosting their adaptive capacity in response to climate change so as to safeguard sustainable development and food security improvement of their population.