Open Access Case Study

Investigation of Seismo-thermal Precursor of Goharan Earthquake (2013) by Thermal Data of MODIS Sensor in TERRA Satellite

Sina Saber-Mahani, M. Reza Sepahvand, M. Hosseinjani Zadeh

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/27226

The main objective of this research is to study the seismo-thermal earthquake precursor of the Goharan earthquake (2013) using TERRA satellite imaging and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. In order to reach this goal, Land Surface Temperature (LST) data for seismo-thermal precursor was considered through colorization and time series analysis using wavelet transform. In addition, air effects the reduction in air temperature time series of the closest station subtracted from LST time series. Results of colorization revealed that the region with higher temperature can be used for recognition of the fault plane and the auxiliary plane. Subsequently, after plotting earthquake aftershocks, it is possible to estimate the location of the strike of the earthquake fault and the found strike location is in agreement with the higher temperature line. Also, the analysis of the time series and application of wavelet transform analysis shows that before an earthquake occurs, the soil temperature reaches the highest temperature four days prior to the event. A day before the earthquake occurs; the soil’s temperature subsides to the minimum.

 

Open Access Short Communication

Further Evidence of Coal Fly Ash Utilization in Tropospheric Geoengineering: Implications on Human and Environmental Health

J. Marvin Herndon, Mark Whiteside

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/31417

We disclose a fourth independent line of evidence, based on the co-precipitation technique, pointing to coal fly ash as the material utilized in tropospheric geoengineering, and describe some of the adverse environmental and public health risks associated with its persistent application. During a snow storm, the fluffy snow traps geoengineering-aerosol-particulates and brings them down with the snow. The results of the ICP-MS analytical measurements of the snow-melt particulates we tested are consistent with three independent lines of evidence that coal fly ash is the main aerosolized particulate used for tropospheric geoengineering. Coal fly ash tropospheric geoengineering inhibits rainfall to change weather/climate which disrupts habitats, including arable habitats. Long periods of artificially induced drought can wreak economic disaster on farmers, and shift the delicate balance in nature, weakening natural defenses and giving a boost to aggressive pathogens. Coal fly ash when exposed to water or body fluids can release a host of toxic chemicals including neuro-toxic aluminum in a chemically mobile form and carcinogens such as arsenic, hexavalent chromium, and the radioactive elements, uranium, thorium and their daughter products. The only safe geoengineering is no geoengineering at all.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

An Indication of Intentional Efforts to Cause Global Warming and Glacier Melting

J. Marvin Herndon

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/30834

Aims: On or about February 14, 2016, an oily-ashy substance was accidently released by an aircraft and fell on seven residences and vehicles in Harrison Township, Michigan (USA). The aims of this investigation are to analyze the “air-drop material” and from the results obtained to draw inferences as to the intended purpose of the material.

Methodology: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were used to analyze the “air-drop material”.

Results: The “air-drop material” was found to consist of an assemblage of plant material mixed with coal fly ash and salt. The splatter pattern on vehicles, ground, and rooftops resembles cryoconite holes observed on ablating glaciers worldwide. The “air-drop material” resembles to some extent natural cryoconite, and appears to be modeled after that substance with coal fly ash imparting the dark gray color that absorbs sunlight, melts glacial ice, and contributes to global warming.

Conclusions: The results of this investigation provide evidence that is indicative of a deliberate effort to hasten the melting of glaciers and thereby hasten global warming. If so, this investigation reinforces the net effect of daily particulate aerosol spraying in the troposphere observed worldwide. Elsewhere the author has provided evidence that coal fly ash is the primary material being employed in such spraying whose net effect is to enhance global warming. Scientists worldwide should call for, and indeed demand, a full and open investigation into these covert geoengineering activities whose potential impacts on Earth’s climate system, the integrity of Earth’s biota, and on human health may prove to be extremely hazardous.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Prediction Schemes for Estimating Rainfall Onset over Different Climatic Zones in West Africa

Olaniran J. Matthew, Osasu G. Imasogie, Muritala A. Ayoola, Olawale E. Abiye, Lukman A. Sunmonu

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/31043

This study compares the predictive skills of some commonly used prediction schemes to estimate dates of onset of rainfall in various climatic regions of West Africa. Specifically, the abilities of seven different schemes, which are relatively easy to apply on a large scale, were compared from 1980 to 2014 over the three major climatic regions (Forest, Guinea and Sudan-Sahel savannah) of Nigeria. Three of them are dependent on rainfall data (ogive, daily rainfall probability and Walter-Olaniran methods); three on rain-evapotranspiration relation (Benoit, Anyadike, Kowal and Knabe) and one dependent on equivalent potential temperature (Theta-E). The prediction schemes demonstrated that the onset dates were much earlier (from Julian day 061 to 084) in the south than (146 to 162) the north. The results also showed that the onset dates varied slightly (by ±6 days) from east to west within the same climatic zone. Their performances varied across the stations and zones. However, they generally performed adequately well in the Savannah than the Forest. Particularly, Walter-Olaniran and ogive methods performed best in the Sudan-Sahel with predictive skills of less than ±7 days of actual date of onset. The study concludes that foremost criterion for a choice of any prediction scheme is the ability of the scheme for estimating rainfall onset over a region of interest.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Schist Enclaves of Oban Massif, Southeastern Nigeria: Consistency of Dihedral Angle and Other Natural Physical and Mechanical Properties

Michael I. Oden, Asinya E. Asinya, Efosa Udinmwen

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/28643

The schist enclaves of Oban massif, southeastern Nigeria were deformed predominantly by brittle deformation and contain a plethora of fractures such as joints and conjugate shear fractures. Analysis of the conjugate shear fractures using stereographic projection technique and statistical methods reveal a consistency in dihedral angle (2θ) in the different schist enclaves studied, irrespective of location. The most frequently occurring (2θ) values range from 55°-60° in this basement terrain and this indicates that the schists were deformed mainly by brittle deformation under similar depth of burial, confining pressure and metamorphic level. The natural angle of internal friction (ɸ) range from 20°-40° while the coefficient of internal friction (µ) range from 0.3 -0.8. These values lend credence to the dihedral angle (2θ) by being consistent in all the schist enclaves. The natural earth pressure coefficient (K) mostly ranges from 2.0 to 4.0 and this implies that the schists of Oban massif even though somewhat variable in mineralogy, have a moderate natural competence. From all indications, natural rock deformation in a quarzo-feldspathic rock mass at the level that schistose grade is produced, may generate dihedral angles mainly in the range of 55°-60°.