Open Access Short Research Article

The Emerging Population Increase and Its Environmental Challenges and Remedies in Iringa Municipal, Tanzania

Msafiri Y. Mkonda, Xinhua He

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/31072

The study has shown that the environmental challenges encountered in Iringa and most other urban areas in Africa are due to the anthropogenic activities arising from the influxes of migrants from rural areas. The urban areas are continuing to receive mostly rural migrants beyond their demographic carrying capacities, hence suffering from the environmental degradations arising from the living activities of their increasing populations/overpopulations on struggle to make livelihoods attainable. The aim of this study is to show the link between the influxes of migrants and environmental degradation in the Iringa municipality of the Southern highlands of Tanzania. Household surveys, informative interviews, physical observations, group discussions and literature reviews were employed in the data collection and crosschecking. The SPSS v. 20, Microsoft excel and themes content methods of data analysis were also used. The results show that poverty and population increase are the root causes contributing about 90% of environmental degradation. In addition, food and energy requirements, and inadequate awareness on the issues of environmental management were found to be obstacles in the addressing of the problem. Deforestation, monoculture, poor waste management, and pollution of heavy metals (especially lead, copper and arsenic) are some of the anthropogenic activities creating environmental degradations in the Iringa municipality. These anthropogenic activities increase the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), which are some of the greenhouse gases that cause some of the very harmful climate change going on in the world. The study also revealed that, the existing relationship between man and environment is parasitic and asymmetric, and that, there is more environmental degradation than conservation. Therefore, recommends that proper agronomic practices and alternative energy sources should be employed to enhance crops yield and environmental goods and services as well.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Geophysical Appraisal of the Aquifer Geomaterials of Ugep and Environs, Southeastern, Nigeria Using Resistivity Data

Inyang Godwin Edet, Opara Alexander Ifeanyichukwu, Ibechu Bridget Odochi, Nwachukwu Helen Gloria, Eluwa Ndidiamaka, Amadi Chinyere Caroline, Emberga Theophilus Terhemba, Eke Daberechi Richmond

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/30349

Hydrogeophysical characterization of the aquifers of Ugep and environs, Southeastern Nigeria was carried out to delineate the aquifers of the study area, evaluate their geometrical potentials and to assess their level of vulnerability to pollution from surface contaminants. Forty (40) Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were acquired within the various parts of the study area with a maximum half current electrode separation (AB/2) of 500 metres using the digital terrameter, SAS 4000 model. Seven (7) out of these soundings were parametric soundings carried out at the exact positions of existing boreholes for the purpose of correlation and comparison. The VES data were processed using a combination of curve matching and computer iterative modeling techniques. Layer parameters interpreted from the VES data together with the available well data were used to assess the vulnerability of the shallow aquifers using the DRASTIC model. Results of the study revealed the presence of 3-8 geoelectric layers with the KH curve type being dominant. Information extracted from iso-resistivity models of the study area revealed a distinct hydrogeological divide in line with the geology of the study area. Depth to the water table ranges from 12.4 m to 147 m with a mean value of 67.96 m. The aquifers of the study area are variable in thickness with values ranging from 5.7 m to 123 m with a mean value of 47.3 m.The Dar Zarrouk parameters which gave insights into the hydrogeological condition of the study area revealed that longitudinal conductance values varies from 0.0053 Sm (VES 28) to 0.0053 Sm (VES 40), with a mean value of 0.2848 Sm while the transverse resistance ranges from 1106.33 Ωm2 to 84992 Ωm2 with a mean value of 19819.3 Ωm2. Result of the groundwater vulnerability assessment revealed that 2.5% of the study area falls within the low vulnerability zone, whereas about 55% of the study area is of moderate vulnerability to groundwater contamination with aquifer vulnerability index ranges of 108 to 133. The pattern of spatial variation of vulnerability is believed to be as the result of the variation in depth to water table from east to west. It was also revealed that about 42.5% of the study area falls within the high aquifer vulnerability zone with the DRASTIC index value ranging from 141 to 161.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Geyser Eruption Mechanism: Natural and Empirical Verification

Andrei Nechayev

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/31316

The theoretical mechanism of geyser eruption is analyzed and verified using the example of Geysers in Kamchatka (Russian Federation) and Yellowstone (United States). A simple experimental geyser model, confirming the basic conclusions of the theory, is described and demonstrated.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity of Fissured Aquifers from Precambrian Basement of San Pedro (Southwestern of Côte d’Ivoire)

O. Z. De Lasme, M. Youan Ta, L. K. Adopo, T. Lasm, D. Baka, A. F. K. Yao

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/27464

This study focuses on characterization of hard-rock aquifers in South Western Côte d’Ivoire where previous quantitative hydrogeological studies were not common. San Pedro is localized in South-Western Côte d'Ivoire where the basement is dominated by folded and fissured crystalline rocks. Several years ago, many drinking water supply initiatives were performed in this study area considering its particular geographical location and hydrological trumps. This study aims to contribute to the best knowledge of hydrogeological potentialities of this basement pointing to reduce doubtful quality surface water using. The database incorporated satellite radar image and reports of boreholes. The methodological approach was based on remote sensing, fracture characterizing and pumping tests. Treatment of satellite image highlighted 271 fractures ranged between 2.11 and 39.37 km. Rock mass permeability due to fractures fluctuated between 2.35E-07 and 8.13E-06 m.s-1. Spatial distribution of aquifers permeability due to fractures has highlighted three theoretical groundwater flow paths. Water yields delivered from aquifers of gneiss, granodiorite and migmatite are higher than those delivered from the aquifer of mica schist and granite. The productivity of hard-rock aquifers did not exclusively depend on fracturing density and thicknesses of weathered layers. It is also influenced by the positioning of boreholes on fractures nodes and the structure of bedrocks. Presents results have provided a guideline in searching potential zones of high quantity and best quality drinking water. These results are encouraging because they contribute to creating a Spatial Hydrogeological Information System for groundwater exploitation and management in South Western Côte d’Ivoire.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental and Sanitary Impacts of Waste at Autonomous Port of Cotonou (Benin, West Africa)

Bédou Sare, Brice G. Tente, S. Soumanou Toleba, Haziz Sina, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Christophe Houssou

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/31410

Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the environmental and health impacts of poor waste management at the autonomous port of Cotonou, Benin.

Materials and Methods: The socio-anthropological investigations were carried. The collected data was used, through appropriate analysis, to identify the diseases linked to the environment degradation in Cotonou.

Results: The results of this analysis shows that the port environment is affected by several pollutants. Thus, the chemical substance contain in the discharged pollutants into the port basin are often accumulated in the food chain by some aquatic species (fishes, shrimp, crab...) that enter the population's diet. Pollutants found on soil and in the atmosphere have negative effects on the environment, causing depletion of stratospheric nitrogen, acid precipitation, and amplification of the greenhouse effect. The degradation of the port environment can be involved in several diseases that affect users such as food poisoning, malaria, diarrhea, sinusitis, bronchitis, asthma and other food infections diagnosed among the port worker.

Conclusion: Due to the efforts made by port authorities, the severity of those diseases are in regression since some years.