Shoreline mapping and change rate along the Ras El-Hekma, north west of Egypt has been analyzed. Thresholding band ratio method, in which a thresholding value is selected either by man-machine interaction or by a local adaptive strategy, has been used to extract shorelinе. Digital Shoreline Analysis Systеm (DSAS) used to detect Change ratе of shorelines by EPR (end point rate model). Also future shoreline positions based on precedent shorelines has been predicted and has been corrected. Rates and trends Information of shoreline change can give recommendation to the decision makers to decide the best coastal area to be invested and also can be used to improve understanding of underlying causes and potential effects of coastal erosion/ accretion which can support informed coastal management. Multi-temporal satellite images acquired from (USGS) U.S. Geological Survey in 1973, 1987, 1995,2003 and 2015 along time period 42 years. These images were used to detect the shoreline position, predict the future shoreline, and to estimate change rate. The results show that the eastern side of study area tends to erosion all the time period. The western area has about 40- 70% erosion and 30-60% accretion depend on date. Overall 42 years the maximum accretion rate is 12 m/year and erosion rate is -9.65m/year. The average rates are defined from -0.8 to -4.25 for erosion and 0.05 to 1.60 for accretion definitely not high. The predicted shoreline was compared with the actual shoreline detected from high resolution satellite imagery of 2015. The positional shift at each sample point is observed. The positional error varies from -49.8 m to 76.3 m. The Rote Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the future predicted shoreline2015 was found to be 15.75 m. also 2020and 2050 shorelines has been predicted and corrected.
Aims: This is a critical comment on the recently published paper by Herndon (JGEESI 9(1): 1-11, 2017). I present compelling findings that Herndon’s main claim that the “air-drop material” found on February 14, 2016 in Harrison Township, Michigan (USA) is an evidence for a deliberate world-wide effort to cause global warming and glacier melting is misleading.
Analysis: The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has determined that the found “air-drop material” was consistent with bird droppings because it morphologically resembles plant material, including leaves, seeds and fruit skins from berries. The 127th Wing, Michigan Air National Guard also stated that there was no indication that the substance came from any type of military aircraft.
Conclusion: Although the above relevant information about the Harrison Township event was already known since late February 2016, it is concealed in Herndon’s paper. Indeed, the climate of Michigan is optimal to grow blueberry and other winter berries and these are usual winter food for local birds. Herndon missed to properly investigate the more likely possibility that the air-drop material could simple be unusual bird scat.
The Rusizi national Park management is now disconnected from peripheral territorial dynamics. This study aims to analyze the evolution of the protected area considering both participatory management strategies and spatial socio-economic interactions. For this, an integrated methodology was used. This one combines the diachronic analysis of land cover from multi-temporal Landsat images (1984, 1990, 2000, 2011, 2015) using ENVI 4.5 and ArcGIS 10.1 softwares, field observations and measurements of anthropic threats on the natural resources using GIS technologies and interviews and statistical analysis of the exploitation of the resources based on ANOVA and χ² tests using SPSS 16.0 software. The results show that the protected area has been considerably deteriorated. Its degradation is mainly due to massive and seasonal exploitation of vegetal resources that involves 84% of the supervised operators and 71% of illegal exploitation, generalized farming deforestation, bush fires and cattle grazing. Finally, we note a decline of vegetation cover of 29.9%, a decrease of water bodies of 31.24% and an extension of anthropized areas of 94.5% dominated by cultivated areas which are moving from the depths to the periphery and migrating from heights to the shallows. The increase in offenses results in a symbolic and low-paying participatory management and the presence of 35 villages which are depending on the park for more than 85% of their resources needs. The newest villages are strategically located within 3 km distance from the park where they are experiencing a very quick population growth and a lot of fraudulent markets for forest products. The operating revenues of the park are still too low to ensure self-financing, local development and control of threats. These results will help decision makers and park managers to define appropriated objectives, methods and tools for more efficient community-based management and sustainable use of natural resources.
This research reports overpressure occurrence in the eastern part of Niger Delta by using an integrated approach that combines the use of equivalent depth method, the Eaton equation with seismic reflection data. Sonic logs from four wells in the Oluku field were used. Pore pressure was calculated using Eaton equation and equivalent depth method and the result compared with pressure measurement data. The result showed that the eastern part of the delta is highly pressured with pressure regime that followed a typical ledged-tiered triple configuration with three episodes of overpressure. Prominent overpressure zones occur at depths of 4965 ft to 5099.5 ft, 7826 ft to 8337 ft, and 9424 ft to 10129 ft in Oluku-01 well, 4251.5 ft to 4408 ft, 7132.5 ft to 7495 ft and 9212.5 ft to 10000 ft in Oluku-02 well, 6322 ft to 6750 ft, and 9706ft to 10020 ft in Oluku-03 well and 4136.5 ft to 4275.5 ft, 7560 ft to 8000 ft, and 9038.5 ft to 9350 ft in Oluku-04 well. When compared with available pressure measurement data, computation using the Eaton equation was found to be closer to the pressure measurement data with the equivalent method underestimating the pore pressure. Seismic signature in the vicinity of the overpressure shows evidence of low velocity close to the shallow over-pressure zone probably due to under-compaction of sediments at shallow depth. Four regional faults in the study area contribute to abnormally high pressure at depth due to their sealing of permeable bed in the vicinity of kerogen-rich formation. This work reveals that the eastern flank of the Niger Delta exhibit higher degree of overpressure that the western flank. The knowledge of this is necessary for adequate planning before drilling into the formation in order to guard against dangerous drilling problems such as excessive cost overrun, well kicks and blowouts, lost circulation, stuck pipe and wellbore instability.
In the French “Nord-Pas-de-Calais” region, sediments suspended in runoff waters coming from rural watersheds play a major part in the turbidity of surface waters, silting up of streams, and silting of permanent structures such as canals and ports.
One of the main factors in processes limiting sediment transfers is the vegetation cover. Quantitative assessment and comparative analysis of the impacts of vegetation cover performed in various scales (fields, smaller watersheds, and larger watersheds) allow showing effects' analogy in these cases. As a result, it is possible to estimate and quantify, at little cost, the risks induced by erosion and runoff in the larger rural watersheds, and the need to change land use. Thereby, watersheds where the situation is more favorable can serve as a model.