Open Access Minireview Article

2500 Years of Palaeoecology: A Note on the Work of Xenophanes of Colophon (Circa 570-475 BCE)

Pim de Klerk

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/32198

The year 2016 CE marked the centennial of palynology as a scientific discipline after Lennart von Post introduced it in lectures in Kristiania (now Oslo) and Stockholm in 1916. However, palynology is only one of many disciplines within the broad field of palaeoecology. The 100th birthday of palynology raised the question of when palaeoecological research was actually conducted for the first time. The first rudimentary application seems to go back to Xenophanes of Colophon (circa 570-475 BCE), who concluded from observations of shells and marine fossils on lands that these in the past must have been covered by a sea. Although the exact date when Xenophanes formulated his ideas is unknown, celebration of another milestone after the Von Post year may be appropriate: that of 2500 years of palaeoecology.


Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Outdoor Ambient Radioactive Radiation and Evaluation of Radiation Indices and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk within Uyo, Unity Park, Uyo, Nigeria

Sunday E. Etuk, Aniesua A. Essiett, Okechukwu E. Agbasi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/31980

In this paper, the first result of outdoor ambient radioactivity measurement and evaluated radiation indices and excessive lifetime cancer risk factor within Uyo, Unity Part Uyo, Nigeria (Latitude 5.0281°, Longitude 7.9734° and Latitude 5.0466° and Longitude 7.9869°) are presented. Overall mean equivalent dose rate of 0.116µSv/yr and mean ELCR of 0.449 x 10‑3 were recorded for the park. The mean annual equivalent dose is less than the ICRP annual recommended limit. The values here are less than those reported for most other locations by other researchers.


Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution of Tanzania Southern Highlands Forest Diversity to Household Income and Food Supplements: The Case of Mufindi District in Tanzania

David K. Msola, Elly J. Ligate, Can Chen, Chengzhen Wu

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/32300

Aims: Understanding the role played by forest diversity to supply non-timber forest products for income and food supplements of households is important in forest management and human life. This study was conducted to investigate the role played by non-timber forest products and their implications on income and food supplements in Mufindi District in Tanzania.

Methodology: A cross section field survey research methodology was used in this study. Six representative villages in three wards; Rugemba, Igowole and Sadan located within 30 Km to forest reserves were selected. Interviews were conducted to 180 respondents from the three wards. One focus group from each village was conducted while District agricultural officers and village leaders formed a key informant’s category. Quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science Software and Microsoft excel while memos were produced from qualitative data and used to narrate discussion. Taxonomic plants classification was carried out at Sokoine University of Agriculture botanic laboratory.

Results: It was found that non-timber forest products are mostly consumed directly by the people who collect them as a useful dietary supplement, especially when food is scarce. To a lesser extent, they are also sold for cash, but the market for them is badly organized in terms of poor transport and lack of storage facilities, so they are not an important source of income except for people who live near important roads. It was discovered that deforestation and climate change are reducing the potential supply of these products.

Conclusions: Given the importance of the sustainable exploitation of non-timber forest products as an incentive for forest conservation, the market for non-timber forest products should be rationalized and expanded. Improvement of the use and role of wild foods should be planned and implemented within a larger scheme of sustainable forest management.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Socioeconomic/Demographic Determinants of Public Perception about Climate Change in Ekiti State of Nigeria

Biola K. Badmos, Henry O. Sawyerr, Samson O. Awopeju, Gabriel A. Salako, Abdulrasheed A. Adio, Atinuke R. Oyewumi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/32400

Perception influences the manner people address the risks and opportunities associated with climate change and this in turn influences the manner people respond to the impact(s). Based on questionnaire data collected from 197 respondents, this paper examined public perception about climate change and the socioeconomic/demographic factors influencing their perception in Moba Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. To establish these factors, socioeconomic/ demographic variables (sex, age, marital status, educational level and occupation) were regressed on the climate change perception of the people using a binary logistic regression approach. Education level (P = 0.000) and occupation (p = 0.079) significantly influenced peoples’ perception about climate change in the study area. The result indicates that there is higher likelihood to understand and improve perception about climate change as educational level increases. Also, as one gets involved in climate sensitive occupation, there is higher likelihood to understand and improve perception about climate change. This study suggests expanding access to climate change education can enhance peoples’ understanding about climate change and their ability to relate to consequences of climate change impacts which may influence the willingness and capacity to adopt and implement adaptive measures to climate change. Further, continuous public sensitization about climate change will ensure the knowledge about climate change is not limited to only those who are impacted directly.


Open Access Original Research Article

Mapping of Hydrothermally Altered Rocks for Mineral Targeting in Jos Plateau and Its Environs North Central Nigeria Using Aster Image

J. O. Ogbole, A. A. Omitogun, S. O. Mohammed, E. N. Gajere, H. A. Shaba

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/31847

ASTER short wave infrared (SWIR) bands have been known to be suitable for mapping hydrous silicates and carbonates. The occurrence of certain mineral groups and specific minerals which include; kaolinite, alunite, illite, muscovite, montmorillonite, chlorite, calcite, dolomite, serpentine, and others, have been predicted using the SWIR bands. The aim of this research is to investigate the presence of hydrothermal alteration minerals and their relationship with the tin mineralisation in the study area using ASTER satellite imagery and other data sets.

The study area falls within parts of Naraguta Sheet 188, which is part of the younger granite province of Jos Plateau in north central Nigeria. False-color composite (FCC), band ratios, principal component analysis (PCA), methods, were used to process the ASTER data. The (SWIR468) image of the Jos plateau and environs, shows a general sight of alteration, a compound band ratio of RGB (2/1, 4/9, 3/2) was applied, where the bright yellow color represents the presence of hydrothermal alteration in the study area. A colour composite of (-PC4 (1234), PC4 (1346), 3/2) was also used where green and yellow color show hydrothermal alteration in the study area. The following band compositions were transformed using PCA to discriminate phyllosilicates which are the main features of alteration. For Alunite, (bands 1, 3, 5, and 7), Ilit (bands 1, 3, 5, and 6), Kaolinte and Smectit (bands 1, 4, 6, and 9), Kaolinte (bands 1, 4, 6, and 7). The results of the study shows the relationship of the Tin rich younger granite complexes of parts of Jos Plateau and their association with the hydrothermally altered rocks, where Kaolinite, Alunite Biotite Muscovite and Illite where identified using ASTER data.