Climate models evaluated by the IPCC are based on the assumptions that: (1) Heat derived from the Sun is constant; (2) Heat derived from within the Earth is constant; and, (3) Anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric warming stem mainly from heat retention by CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Geophysical evidence of variable earthquake activity and geological evidence of variable submarine volcanism presented here indicate that heat added to the oceans is variable. The increasing occurrences of earthquakes of magnitudes ≥6 and ≥7 during 1973-2015 indicate volcanic activity is increasing and therefore Earth-heat, as well as volcanic CO2 additions, is increasing. Moreover, increased heat additions to the ocean act to decrease seawater solubility of CO2, ultimately releasing additional CO2 to the atmosphere. Furthermore, increasing submarine volcanic activity implies increasing ocean acidification, but data are insufficient to make quantitative estimates. The validity of IPCC evaluations and assessments depends critically upon due consideration being given to all processes that potentially affect Earth’s heat balance. In addition to the geological and geophysical processes discussed, the scientific community, including IPCC scientists, has turned a blind eye to ongoing tropospheric geoengineering that in recent years has been occurring on a near-daily, near-global basis. Tropospheric aerosolized particulates, evidenced as coal fly ash, inhibit rainfall, heat the atmosphere, and cause global warming. Evidence obtained from an accidental air-drop release indicates efforts to melt glacial ice and enhance global warming. By ignoring ongoing tropospheric geoengineering, IPCC assessments are compromised, as is the moral authority of the United Nations.
Geological interpretation of the high resolution aeromagnetic data over Okigwe-Udi area Southeastern Nigeria, was carried out using 2-D spectral inversion and 3-D Standard Euler deconvolution methods. The objectives of the study are to delineate subsurface geological features, estimate the depth to anomalous magnetic bodies, map basement topography and infer the contribution of the interpreted features to the mineral and hydrocarbon potentials of the study area. The acquired magnetic data was enhanced to separate residual features relative to the strong regional gradients and other more intense magnetic anomalies due to basement features and igneous intrusives. The spectral inversion computational method used in the study transformed the spatial data into the frequency domain and provided a relationship between the radially averaged power spectrum of the magnetic anomalies and the depths to the respective sources. Similarly, the 3-D Standard Euler Deconvolution method examined the shape of the magnetic field within a window and calculated the 3-D source locations based on magnetic structural indices (SI). Results of the 2-D spectral analysis revealed a two layer depth model with the shallower magnetic source depth varying from 0.223 to 1.048 km (d1) with an average depth of 0.641 km while the deeper magnetic source bodies (d2) depth varies from 2.659 km to 3.748 km with an average depth of 3.088 km. Linear features delineated from the study revealed a predominance of NE-SW trending structures within the study area. Structural interpretation using 3-D Euler deconvolution with structural index values of 0 to 3, revealed three dominant structural models which include spheres, horizontal pipes/cylinders and sills/dykes. In addition, magnetic depth estimates made from 3-D Standard Euler deconvolution revealed a depth range of 0 to 3.0 km. Despite the fairly appreciable sedimentary thickness, the hydrocarbon potential of the study area is low owing to the presence of pyroclastics in the area which is a strong indication of previous igneous activities.
Estimation of radio refractivity is critical in the planning and design of radio links/systems for the purpose of achieving optimal performance. This present work investigates the tropospheric radio refractivity over Ikeja, Lagos State, South Western, Nigeria (Latitude 6.58°N, Longitude 3.33°E and altitude 40 m above sea level) and the sensitivity of radio refractivity due to meteorological parameters of monthly average daily atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and temperature for a period of 12-years. The statistical estimation of tropospheric radio refractivity has been evaluated using the method recommended by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The result indicated that the radio refractivity during the rainy season is greater than the dry season. It was observed that the maximum average value of radio refractivity of 389.45 N-units and minimum average value of 373.04 N-units occurred during the rainy and dry seasons in the months of April and January respectively. The dry term contributes 67.98% to the total value of the radio refractivity while the wet term contributes to the major variation. The average refractivity gradient computed for the study area under investigation was N-units/km and the average effective earth radius (k – factor) was 1.39 which corresponds to the conditions of super-refraction.
This study examines the indicators of development in the rural areas of Okene in order to determine the levels of socio-economic development of the rural areas by identifying and analysing the available development indicators. Based on the yearnings of the people, the appropriateness of the indicators as catalysts for development and their availability in the selected fifty five (55) rural areas, forty six (46) development indicators were identified and evaluated for the study. The forty six (46) development indicators were subjected to Principal Component Analysis which brought out fourteen (14) dominant indicators that explained the variance in the levels of development in the rural areas. The fourteen indicators (such as institutions, agriculture, health facilities, commerce, super market, infrastructure, irrigation facilities, water facilities, tourist sites, cultural and religion institutions) account for 78.54% in the explanation of the variance in the levels of development in the rural areas. Results show that some positive relationships exist among the development indicators but there is a general low level of infrastructural development in the rural areas of Okene. Relevant recommendations and suggestions were made towards a sustainable rural development in Okene based on the findings of the study.
Aim: To use 2-D Electrical Resistivity method in Cassiterite Potential mapping in Jos-Bukuru Area, North Central, Nigeria.
Methodology: Locations suspected to have very high probability for cassiterite mineralisation from the cassiterite potential map produced for the study area were selected for 2-D electrical resistivity survey. 2-D Electrical resistivity survey was carried out to obtain resistance data. The configuration used here was the Wenner-Schlumberger. The measured resistance data collected in the field was converted to apparent resistivity values which were then iteratively subjected to inversion process using RES2DINV software, to generate the 2-D resistivity sections. Inversion was carried out with the robust model constraint. Forward resistivity calculation was executed by applying an iterative algorithm based on finite element method. Rock samples were also collected near the survey lines used for the 2-D electrical resistivity survey for petrography.
Results: The 2-D resistivity interpretation models revealed the probable average depth to cassiterite bearing alluvium to be least at Doi 2 (6 m) and greatest at Vom 1 (50 m). Suspected igneous intrusions and faults were observed within the subsurface of Kwang Rayfield 1 and 2, Doi 1 and 2, Rapkparak Shen and Kwata Zawan 1 and 2 profiles. The 2-D resistivity interpretation model for Vom 1 and 2 revealed probable depths to sub-basalt valley to be greater than 50 m and 45 m respectively. A loto (Hausa word for tunnel) mine was dug 295 m along Kwang Rayfield 1 survey line and was confirmed to contain some cassiterite bearing alluvium at 11.5 m deep. The probable depth to the cassiterite bearing alluvium from point A (295 m) on Kwang Rayfield 1 interpretation model is approximately 10 m. This depth in comparison with the depth in the loto mine at which cassiterite was found is correct to about 87%. Petrography revealed dominance of biotite, quartz and feldspar in hand specimen and thin section.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that though large lodes of cassiterite may have been extracted, there may still be some substantial amount of cassiterite deposits in the Jos - Bukuru area.