Open Access Original Research Article

Determining the Rate and Pattern of the Spatio-Temporal Growth of Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State Nigeria

Benedine Akpu, Adamu I. Tanko

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/31455

Kaduna is experiencing a rapid spatial growth mainly due to high rate of urbanization and economic development. Information concerning this growth is required for proper planning. Therefore, this paper determined the rate and pattern of the spatial growth of Kaduna metropolis between 1973 and 2009. In order to achieve the aim of this study, Landsat MSS imagery; Landsat TM; Landsat ETM+ and Nigeriasat-1 image captured in 1973, 1990, 2001 and 2009 respectively were used for the study. Visual interpretation method was used to sort the various datasets into landuse and cover classes. The built-up area was extracted and the rates of growth between the periods 1973-1990; 1990-2001 and 2001-2009 were ascertained. The built-up areas for the four time period were overlain in order to derive the urban growth map. The Shanoon’s entropy technique was adopted to determine the extent of landscape disorganization or pattern of growth. The results reveal that the built-up area increased from 6,410.4ha in 1973 to 19,611.5ha in 2009. The city was growing at the rate of 5.72% per annum within the period studied.  The results also show that the area towards the southern part of the River Kaduna was growing at a higher rate (11.24%) compared with the northern part (3.71%).The southern part of the Metropolis had higher entropy value for the four time periods however, the difference in entropy was higher for the northern zone. The paper recommends amongst others that: i) the developers should lay more emphasis on vertical growth; ii) adequate planning to accommodate the rapid growth by developing more layouts to keep pace with the high growth rate.


Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Assessment of Temperature and Land Cover Change as Climate Change Monitoring Strategies in Owerri, Nigeria

K. O. E. Ukaegbu, M. C. Iwuji, C. C. Uche, I. E. Osumgborogwu, G. T. Amangabara

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/34568

Climate change is one of the alarming global environmental changes likely to have deleterious effects on natural, social, cultural and human systems. The risks associated with it call for a broad spectrum of policy responses and strategies at local, regional, national and global levels. This study seeks to explore the nexus between geospatial techniques in assessing climate change and sustainable development, discussing evidenced effects of climate change with considerations into sustainable development efforts in Owerri, Nigeria. This study uses Landsat 5, Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 satellite data of 1986, 2000 and 2016 respectively to evaluate land cover and temperature variation as climatic change in the study area over three decades. The results from the adopted geospatial analysis revealed that climate change resulted from development activities in urban cities, and is evidently affecting every sector of human activities and limiting life expectancy, thus working against sustainable development. This confirms that changes in impervious surfaces significantly produce corresponding effect in increasing urban heat in the city. This study recommended that adequate land use planning be enforced by adopting green city planning techniques.


Open Access Original Research Article

Geomorphometric Parameters of Ikpa River and its Implications for the Planning of Fluvial Hazards in the Northeast of Akwa Ibom State

M. N. Ezemonye, Ikpong S. Umo, C. C. Ojinma, M. C. Ike, A. Iweka Enwereuzor

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/34674

This article examines the geomorphometry of Ikpa River as a major determinant of the planning pattern for fluvial hazards in the Northeast of Akwa Ibom State. Geomorphometric parameters were computed for the entire area and the seven sub-basins sampled within the main watershed. A descriptive analysis of the parameters indicates that the dendritic Ikpa Watershed is a natural river with homogenous geologic formation and possesses high degree of integration of the smaller rivers. Sixteen geomorphometric parameters were measured for the seven sub-basins. Using Principal Component Analysis, four major geomorphometric parameters were identified and they explained 96.8 percent of the total variance. The four components were texture (34.6%), areal (33.2%), shape (19.0%) and form (10.0%)}. Relationships were sought among four variables using multiple regression model. Result of the multiple coefficient of determination (R) yielded 0.997, with the adjusted R of 0.982, which explained 98.2 percent of the proportion of variance in the series. The findings imply that the prevailing flood and erosion in the Ikpa River basin is associated with its geomorphometry. We recommend appropriate monitoring of the forms and processes; and the establishment of dam at the confluence of the fourth order sub-basin to regulate flood and other water-induced hazards associated with the downstream region of the watershed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Mapping Groundwater Quality Parameters Using Geographic Information System (GIS) in Oyo State, Nigeria

T. O. Ogunbode, I. P. Ifabiyi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/34634

The knowledge of spatial pattern of groundwater quality is important to ensure a holistic approach to the management of the resource quality status in space and time. Thus a sample each of underground water was collected from each of the selected 5 rural communities in each of the selected 25 out of the 33 LGAs in Oyo State for the purpose of quality assessments. Eleven (11) parameters namely water temperature (°C), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Sodium (Na+), SO4, Potassium (K+), Nitrate (NO3), Phosphate (PO3), coli-form count, Oxidation Redox Potential (ORP) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) were subjected to standard laboratory analysis. The data was further subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan post-hoc test. ArcGIS version 10.1software was applied to generate maps to show the Duncan groupings of each of the quality parameters across the study area. Two (2) parameters namely pH and sulphate show homogenous distribution while the other nine (9) parameters are heterogeneous. Descriptive analysis showed that the groundwater in the study area is generally fit for human consumption. However, adequate attention needs to be given to temperature and potassium contents because they both slightly exceeded the standard required. The mapping affords spatial understanding of the distributional pattern of the parameters so that appropriate water quality management measure/s can be taken at a minimised cost to ensure appropriate levels of the parameter in the water to safeguard human health. Repeated investigation is required to determine the regularity or otherwise pattern of the water quality parameters.


Open Access Original Research Article

Water Quality Analysis for Springs in Bvumba Catchment Area, Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe

Liberty Machona, David Chikodzi, Nevermore Sithole

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/30474

This study sought to analyse the water quality of selected springs in Bvumba, Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe. The water quality parameters analysed in the study were pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Calcium, Magnesium and Total Coliforms. The study further sought to compare the results of the analysis with the ZINWA and WHO (2006) recommended guidelines on drinking water. The Bvumba Community depends on spring water for most of their domestic needs. Some small scale entrepreneurs are packaging and retailing spring water in the area. The commercialization of spring water by small scale entrepreneurs and the dependency of the community on the spring water prompted this research. Samples from six sites were collected and analysed for physical, chemical and biological parameters at Africa University Crop Science Laboratory. Water pH was tested using the pH meter, TDS were tested using Conductivity. The analysis for Calcium and Magnesium were done using the Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. The analysis for Total Coliforms was done using the Membrane Filtration method. The results of the physical and chemical analysis compared favourably with the ZINWA and WHO recommended standards for drinking water, except for three samples that were relatively below the recommended water pH range. The analysis for Total Coliforms showed that three samples from Huncock, Patridge and Nyamheni had Total Coliforms ranging from grade C to grade D. This means that the water from these springs is not suitable for drinking. There is a pathway in the system that is introducing Coliforms. This study provides baseline information on the spring water situation in Bvumba. The study recommends continuous and comprehensive analysis of water for E.Coli to determine the presence of animal and human fecal matter following the detection of Total Coliforms in three of the samples.