Open Access Original Research Article

Creation of a GIS Database for the Assessment of Secondary Schools within Afikpo

A. Emakoji Moses, A. Fortunatus Azubuike

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/36485

Secondary education is a program of public education immediately following primary or elementary schooling. It begins generally at the age of 12 to 14 and continues from four to six years. Some secondary educations, such as vocational schools, is terminal and prepare the student for employment upon graduation. Others lead to advanced training in colleges, universities, or technical schools. Often times, parents and guardians are usually faced with the problem of choice when it comes to the selection of the school they will want their children to attend (especially with the wide gap that exist between public and private school). Some questions that may arise are; should I choose private or public? What facilities have this school? Is the location of this school secure? What is their carrying capacity? This and many more questions are best solved using Geographic Information System (GIS). The aim of this study is to create a GIS database for the management of secondary schools within Afikpo. A satellite imagery of the study area was used as a base map, it was digitized and georeferenced using ArcGIS 9.3 software. Questionnaires were served to principal of secondary schools within Afikpo, some of the questions answered are; name of school, average number of students per class, total number of staff, year of establishment, availability of library, availability of chemistry lab, availability of physics lab, availability of Biology lab, availability of fence. The coordinates of position of each schools gotten with a Garmin 76 hand held GPS receiver were plotted using ArcGIS 9.3 software,  the non-spatial data (attribute data) generated from the questionnaire was used to create the database in ArcGIS environment. The database created will provide the necessary information needed to guide the government and educational authorities in decision-making and will also be a pointer to areas needing urgent attention.


Open Access Original Research Article

Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons Present in Soils Contaminated with Different Petroleum Products

B. Santhaveerana Goud, D. Prathibha

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/36647

The contamination of soil by petroleum hydrocarbons has resulted in an increased attention towards the development of sound and innovative technologies for its remediation. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons by natural populations of microorganisms is the most eco-friendly and economically viable method for the management of petroleum contaminated sites.

The present study uses the potential of indigenous microorganisms to remediate soil contaminated with different petroleum products. The significance of molecular composition of the hydrocarbons present in the contaminated matrix in deciding the biodegradation rate is illustrated in this work. Two sets of bioreactors were set up for the study, wherein each set had 16 bioreactors. Each bioreactor was filled with fresh soil and contaminated with four different substrates or petroleum products (i.e. kerosene, diesel, lubricating oil and waste oil). One set was maintained at optimum environmental conditions and the other set with no maintenance throughout the study period of 12 weeks and served as the control.

Maximum percentage of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal of 85.76% with a degradation rate of 0.0232 d-1 was observed in bioreactor contaminated with diesel and maintained at optimum environmental conditions. Minimum percentage of TPH removal of 40.84% with a degradation rate of 0.0062 d-1 was observed in bioreactor contaminated with waste oil with no maintenance of environmental conditions. The degradation rate was low in control setup. Hence, it could be inferred that environmental conditions have influence on the degradation rate and residual concentrations of the contaminants. Higher degradation was observed in lighter fractions of petroleum when compared to heavier fractions in both the setups. This strengthens the fact that lighter hydrocarbons evaporate in normal conditions and are degraded rapidly, while very long chain alkanes are increasingly resistant to microbial degradation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Rare Corrosion Forms Found in a Karst Syphon

P. Boudinet

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/36409

The aim of this article is to describe two-dimensional scallops (scallops guided inside ribs) found in a syphon, to compare them to the ordinary three-dimensional corrosion forms frequently found in karst systems (scallops and flutes). We also raise a certain number of questions regarding analogical and numerical modeling.

The syphon is named “Combe du Creux” (department of the Doubs, France, EU). We have been exploring this flooded cave since 2003. Since 2015, we are studying its morphology and especially its scallops.

When diving underwater underground (cave diving), observation work is more difficult. Therefore, photographs of the forms, of the tools used to measure them, have been made in order to be processed afterwards.

The ordinary scallops found at four locations inside the cave have been documented, as well as two-dimensional scallops found at a fifth location. Very likely, these particular scallops have formed inside pre-existing ribs. They seem, from a qualitative point of view, to behave like ordinary scallops: they have qualitatively the same profile and obey the Curl relationship. However, regarding details, differences appear and lead to new questions about the formation and evolution of scallops: what is the influence of the material (kinetic and diffusion coefficients)? Of the flow rate? Of the boundary conditions?

Ultimately, we insist on the fact that studying scallops in caves or modeling them is still an open field.


Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Assessment of Uncontrolled Urbanization and Its Deviation from an Intelligent City: A Case Study of Fort Portal, Uganda

Ismail Wadembere, Moreen Kobugabe

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/36362

Uncontrolled urbanization is one of the major geo-environmental challenges facing the developing world today towards attainment of intelligent cities. Various studies have mainly concentrated on impact of uncontrolled urbanization on urban heat island, air quality and housing with little focus on its alteration of urban vegetation cover a major parameter on growth of intelligent cities. This paper uses geo-spatial and remote sensing approaches to assess land cover patterns derived from pixels using maximum likelihood supervised classification of the Landsat data of Fort portal municipality in Uganda using ENVI 5.2 and Arc GIS 10.1. The change detection statistics obtained from land cover transition were analyzed on six years’ interval from 1998 to 2016 basing on the principles of intelligent urbanism. Five major land cover classes - built-up, sparse vegetation, thick vegetation, bare ground and water were obtained. There was an increase in the built-up from 6.89% to 27.38%, bare ground from 12.68% to 39.39% and a decrease of vegetation from 80.42% to 32.4%, almost constant transition from vegetation to built-up of 169.38 Ha (1998-2004), 185.76 Ha (2004-2010) and 139.14 Ha (2010-2016) and a positive transition from bare ground to built-up of 122.31 Ha (1998-2004), 267.66 Ha (2004-2010) and 384.21 Ha (2010-2016). A rapid transition of vegetation cover to built-up is preventing Fort portal from developing into an intelligent city as it is defying the principle of environmental sustainability. The findings can be used as a check point on transition rate of existing land cover to built-up zones in urban areas and to control the radial and linear expansion of towns/ municipalities/ cities using green belts to achieve intelligent cities.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of GIS in the Spatial Distribution of Speed Bumps within Afikpo

A. Emakoji Moses, A. Azubuike Fortunatus

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/36486

Speed bumps (also called speed breakers, or a sleeping policeman) are the common name for a family of traffic calming devices that use vertical deflection to slow motor-vehicle traffic in order to improve pedestrian’s safety. However, Speed bumps often meet resistance from residents and road users because of their discomforting nature arising from unlawful and indiscriminate installation/construction by zealous individuals. The aim of this study is to map out the speed bumps within Afikpo using GIS as a tool with a view to providing a guide (especially to visitors) on best alternative route to adopt. To produce the map, the coordinates of the speed bumps acquired using a handheld global positioning system (GPS) receiver were plotted on a georeferenced map  covering the study area using ArcGIS 9.3 software. The result of this study revealed that speed bumps within Afikpo have their shapes, sizes, and height to be too inconsistent. The map produced will therefore be a useful guide to the populace (especially visitors) informing them of spots to expect speed bumps (and therefore to be more careful especially as there are no traffic signs around) and also, routes to avoid in cases of emergencies so as not to increase the response time of emergency. There is therefore the need for regular and increased education on the variety of speed bumps, their roles, standards, and rational for their installation in addition to the need to shun illegal installation or use of sub-standard or alternate materials such as woods by communities. Further Studies should be carried out to assess the level of compliance with laws guiding the installation of speed bumps and to be able to identify installations that fall short of standard. This will help to draw the attention of the authorities towards the removal of such illegal or substandard installations.