A review of high impact literature on the Southern Benue Trough and Anambra Basin was undertaken to enhance the understanding and definition of the basins in terms of their evolution, area extent, sedimentation history, as well as their litho- bio- and sequence stratigraphy. Early works of [1,2,3,4], and others, which formed the basis for the stratigraphic study of these basins were employed, but were updated by recent reputable works of [5,6,7,8,9,10] and others. The geologic formations encountered in the basins include: the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Group, Agbani Sandstone/Awgu Shale Formation, Nkporo Group, Mamu, Ajalli, Nsukka, Imo, Ameki and Ogwashi-Asaba Formations. Controversy surrounding the stratigraphy of the Anambra Basin, depositional environments and conditions, and age of geologic formations present in the study basins were considered. The aspect of sequence stratigraphy requires more work for a more accurate definition of stratigraphic surfaces required for the establishment of systems tracts and sequences.
Aims: The study set to determine the extent to which climate variability is a problem in semi-arid Tharaka sub-county, Kenya.
Study Design: The study utilized a descriptive research. Specifically, focus group discussions (FGD) and interviews with key informants were used to generate both qualitative and quantitative data.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in four sites in Tharaka sub-county: Tunyai, Chiakariga, Marimanti and Kathangacini administrative units. This study was conducted in the period June–Sept 2010.
Methodology: Four focus group discussions (FGD) (N= 48) and interviews with key informants (N=24) were conducted in four agro-ecological zones. For each FGD, there were 11-13 participants. A participatory risk ranking and scoring method was used to rank and calculate incidence index (I), risk index (R) and severity index (S) of stressors as mentioned by individual respondents. While results from interviews and group discussions were descriptively presented.
Results: Results of incidence index show that lack of money (0.81), drought (0.73), bad health (0.71) and livestock diseases (0.71) were the most mentioned stressors. Lack of money (1.2) and water scarcity (1.24) were the most severe of the stressors. Stressors with the most acute risk were lack of money (0.71), lack of water storage facility (0.51), bad health (0.51) and livestock diseases (0.5). Climate related stressors – irregular rains (0.49) and drought (0.21) were regarded to present moderate and least acute risk respectively. The study further established variations in incidence index, severity and risk index by agro-ecological zones, gender and age. A comparison of individual and group ranking show that climate related stressors are more acknowledged at the later.
Conclusion: To improve climate change adaptation semi-arid lands, development agencies need to focus on poverty alleviation, provision of water storage facilities and health care, and prevention of livestock diseases.
A retrospective analysis of malaria cases was investigated at the block level in Murshidabad district between 2009 and 2016 to apprehend the trend and dynamics of transmission. A personal geodatabase was prepared in ArcGIS environment. The local spatial auto-correlation was investigated using Local Moran’s I statistics. The local Getis-Ord G statistics was used to estimate spatial clustering pattern of malaria. The maximum annual malaria incidence rate was recorded as 6.05/ 10,000 individuals in 2009 whereas, the low incidence rate was recorded in 2016. The occurrences of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria were typically 3 ~ 5 times lower than those of P. vivax malaria incidence. The results also illustrated that the central part of the district was highly affected by the disease. The Moran’s I values for P. falciparum malaria were remarkably fluctuant and generally higher than those P. vivax malaria. The statistically significant high-low clustering pattern were observed for both the malaria cases in 2012 and 2013. Spatial cluster of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria rehabilitated with time. However, this study suggests that appropriate countermeasures should target high threat areas accordingly and the undelaying sources of increased risk in the recognized areas.
Bangladesh is vulnerable to a variety of natural hazards including frequent tropical cyclones and, less commonly, earthquakes and tsunamis. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (2004 IOT) challenged assumptions about the level of regional hazard. Remarkably, little historical data are available to help contribute to earthquake and tsunami risk reduction in Bangladesh. This research addresses this gap by documenting and analysing selected histories and geographies of earthquakes and associated tsunami events (i.e. 28 January 1679, 2 April 1762, 19 August 1868, 31 December 1881, 5 May 1930, 26 June 1941, 26 December 2004 and 11 August 2009) those originated in the northern Bay of Bengal and adjacent region. Findings indicate that only one definite tsunami, occurring in 1762, was generated in the northern Bay of Bengal. Analysis of earthquakes generated in the northern Bay of Bengal indicates that the 1762, 1881 and 1930 earthquakes caused widespread damage. A repeat of similar earthquakes from any of the active seismic sources could cause damage to major population centres in Bangladesh. However, these major earthquakes including 1679 event originating from the Bay of Bengal and adjacent regions did not generate large tsunamis in the northern Bay of Bengal.
It has been observed that daily interaction of millions of Nigerian population estimated at 186.5 million by Population Reference Bureau (PRB) with their immediate environment have serious implications on the landscape, environmental aesthetics and atmospheric well-being. Urban decadence, proliferation of slums, deforestation, congestion and all forms of pollution are some of the resultant effects of man’s interaction with his environment which results in adverse effects on Nigeria major cities. Increased industrial activities have engendered more carbon emission in the country, which it is estimated at 26.1 million tons per annum, the fourth highest in Africa. This paper examines the state of environmental management in the state capital cities of Nigeria in the light of five research-proven indicators of environment-friendly cities. The paper applies qualitative method using the indicators to examine which state capital is really environment-friendly out of the thirty seven (37) in Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. Results show that only five (5) state capitals out of the thirty seven (37) in Nigeria can be referred to as being environment-friendly. The study outlines notable recommendations capable of stimulating the attention and enhancing the efforts of less environment sensitive cities in adopting global best practices.