Open Access Original Research Article

Lithologic, Hydrothermal Alteration and Structural Mapping of Okemesi Folds and Environs Using LandSat 8 OLI and ASTER DEM

Ayo A. Omitogun, John O. Ogbole

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/36143

Structural and tectonic studies of an area, help in the understanding of the magmatism, metallogeny, groundwater, seismicity, geothermal and hydrothermal resources of the region. The Precambrian rocks of Okemesi folds and its environs exhibit multiple deformations, repetitive folding, fracturing and metamorphism. LandSat data have been used widely in mapping lithological and altered rocks in geology. Several Red–Green–Blue colour combination images and specialized band ratios, prepared from Landsat-8 bands coupled with Band ratios derived from image spectra, helped in delineation of altered rocks, lithological units and vegetation. Aerial photographs have limitations because of their dependence on natural east-west solar illumination paths which highlight north-south linear features, perpendicular to the solar illumination; therefore hillshade generated from digital elevation models (DEMs) are an alternative source for identification of lineaments. In this research, a procedure for extracting lineaments from hillshaded ASTER DEM was applied; the results of this study illustrate the effectiveness of extracting lineaments from hillshaded DEMs. The final interpreted lineament map was then produced with a total of about 178 lineaments extracted from the ASTER DEM. The azimuthal distribution indicated that most of the lineaments are trending to NE-SW and NNE-SSW with a few E-W and NNW-SSE directions. These directions are distributed throughout the Okemesi fold axis and on most of the rock complexes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Effectiveness of Hydroengineering Structures for Ensuring a Constant Connection of Lagoons of the North-Western Black Sea Region with the Sea

Yurii S. Tuchkovenko

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/37015

The majority of coastal lagoons, situated in the Ukrainian North-Western Black Sea region, show a long-term tendency of water volume decrease and the increase in water salinity and concentration of nutrients and pollutants due to continuing lack of the conjunction with the sea and significant deficiency in the annual freshwater balance. To compensate this, a constant multi-directional water exchange with the sea through connecting canals is needed for the lagoons. The connecting canals need to be protected from shoaling, caused by the deposition of sand on their sea parts, for ensuring a year-round bidirectional ‘sea-lagoon’ water exchange.

A set of coupled numerical models for currents, waves and the sediment transport was used to estimate the efficiency of different variants of the engineering design of hydroengineering protective structure, which is being constructed at the sea part of the restored artificial canal, connecting the Tylihulskyi Lyman Lagoon with the Black Sea. A real storm situation was simulated, under which the transport of sediments reaches its maximum. Four variants of the engineering design of hydroengineering structure for wave and sediment protection were considered. It was found that the most effective embodiment of the hydroengineering structure is the variant comprised of parabolic-shaped groynes and the underwater breakwater. Reduction in the intake of sediments into the canal is achieved by sedimentation at the entrance to the protective structure. Therefore, under a long-term operation of the ‘sea-lagoon’ connecting canal, measures for removing the depositions accumulated in the inner sections of the protective structure should be implemented. The results of this study can be generalized to other lagoons of the Azov-Black Sea basin.


Open Access Original Research Article

Urban Water Resource Use and Management: An Assessment of Challenges and Opportunities of Community Water Supply Systems in Wote Town, Makueni County, Kenya

Matheaus Kioko Kauti, Kebenei Mercy Cheruto, Kyulu David Mutua, Levu Kelvin Mumo, Mumo Francis Muema

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/27913

The study assesses challenges and opportunities in urban water resource use and management, drawing from a case study material of community water supply systems in Wote Town, Makueni County. Using a Survey Research Design (SRD) both primary and secondary data were collected by use of questionnaires, interviews, photography, use of GIS, observation and the review of relevant literature in order to (1) identify and spatially locate the existing community water supply systems in Wote Town, (2) investigate the socio-economic characteristics of the residents, (3) examine water demand and supply characteristics in Wote Town, (4) investigate peoples’ perception of water quality. First, a reconnaissance survey identified and spatially located the community water supply systems and/or points using a GPS. Second, a random selection of respondents from each of the identified water supply point was done. Ultimately, the survey consisted of 80 households. The findings revealed main sources of water for Wote Town are Kaiti River and Water Kiosks served by a borehole. The level of education, type of occupation and level of income of residents have influence on the choice of water source due to cost implication. On average it takes 22 minutes to fetch water from the preferred source located at a mean distance of 0.94 kilometers. Head log (35.8%) and use of bicycles (32.2%) were the most used modes of transport. Others include use of donkeys, water boozers and motorcycles. Besides River Kaiti and Water Kiosks, rain water harvesting (16.2%) was identified as an alternative source of water. More than half of the residents who draw water from River Kaiti used it for selling. The price ranged from US$ 0.10 to US$ 0.26 per 20-liters Jerrican. The residents reported some cases of water borne diseases such as diarrhea (23.1%) and typhoid (15.4%). Most preferred water treatment methods were boiling (23%), use of water guard (13%), and chlorination (3.3%) while majority (76%) did not treat the water before drinking. In light of these findings, the study recommends investment in water supply infrastructure such as piped water distribution as well as promotion and improvement of rain water harvesting technologies. Such interventions will address the critical problem of shortage of clean water that threatens the health and well-being of the urban dwellers.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Ihiala Laterites for Use as Sub-grade Material in Road Construction

E. I. Okoyeh, O. E. Ejezie, H. N. Ezeh, H. C. Okeke

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/34764

Ten soil samples were collected randomly from Ihiala area at a depth of about 1m using hand auger and shovel for evaluation as a sub-grade material in road construction. These samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and geotechnical properties of pH, natural moisture content, specific gravity, particle size distribution, atterberg limits, Optimum Moisture Content (OMC), Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and California Bearing Ratio (CBR). The pH values ranges from 3.77 to 4.87 in samples 1 to 8 and 10. Silica/sesquioxide ratio values ranges from 0.08 to 0.84 in samples 1 to 8 and 1.66 in sample 9. The result of pH, chemical component analysis and silica/sesquioxide ratio analysis confirmed all the samples to be laterite except sample 9. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) soil classification system, classified samples 1 and 7 as under A-6 soil group; samples 2, 5, 8 and 9 fall under A-2-4 group; sample 3 fall under A-7 group; samples 4, 6 and 10 were grouped under A-4. Using the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), sample 3 is classified under SM (Silty Sand) while all other samples are grouped under SC (Clayey Sand). The MDD of the soil samples ranges from 16.6 to 18.8 KN/m3 with their OMC ranging from 10.8 to 16.00%. The CBR of the samples ranges from 2% to 11% which shows that not all can be used for sub-grade. Generally, using the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing (NFMWH) specifications, sample 2 is a good sub-grade material; samples 6, 7, 3, 5, 8 and 9 are fair for sub-grade while samples 1, 4, and 10 are not suitable for sub-grade. It is recommended that stabilization techniques should be applied on these samples that are not suitable for sub-grade in order to improve their strength.


Open Access Review Article

A Critical Review on Safe Disposal Techniques of Space Debris

Brijesh Patel, Kalpit P. Kaurase, Prabhat Ranjan Mishra

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/36947

As the development and research work in space is greatly increasing now a days, more and more rockets, satellites, and spacecraft are made to sent in space for the various purposes, which work for proposed years and some of those also may fail to work but they are physically present in the orbit as a junk although they are not for any kind of further use and functioning these are called space debris or orbital debris it includes old satellites, spent stages of rockets, damaged parts of spacecraft’s etc. This space debris is increasing very fast in the space and there are chances to get damaged of our working satellites by this debris. So it is compulsory and necessary to track and safe disposal of them to avoid in future accidents and other harmful activities in space. In this paper our focus will be on various safe disposal technologies that may use to dispose space debris.