Open Access Short Communication

Contamination of the Biosphere with Mercury: Another Potential Consequence of On-going Climate Manipulation Using Aerosolized Coal Fly Ash

J. Marvin Herndon, Mark Whiteside

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/37308

Objectives: Atmospheric aerosol climate manipulation has been undertaken since at least the beginning of the 21st century, with increasing frequency and duration, without public discussion, and without disclosure of the particulate matter composition being placed into the air we breathe. Nor have the effects of this activity on biota including humans been discussed. Forensic evidence published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature is consistent with coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste-product of coal-burning, being the main undisclosed geoengineering-particulate. The objective of this paper is to provide additional evidence that the particulate matter aerosolized in the atmosphere during geoengineering activities is coal fly ash and to consider the concomitant potential consequences of contaminating the biosphere with mercury.

Methods: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to investigate evidence bearing on the composition of geoengineering material.

Results: Analyses of rainwater and snow provide further evidence that coal fly ash is the primary component dispersed in the atmosphere for geoengineering purposes. Consequently, this near-daily, near-global climate manipulation activity poses a previously unrecognized risk for environmental mercury contamination by deliberately aerosolized CFA that contains mercury in variable amounts (Table 1) ranging as high as 2 µg/g.

Conclusion:  Despite strengthened mercury emission regulations, mercury measured in rainwater is increasing. Since it is known that the upper troposphere contains oxidized, particle-bound mercury, it is likely that covert aerosolized coal fly ash sprayed into this region is a major source of mercury pollution. Mercury affects multiple systems in the body, potentially causing neurological, cardiovascular, genitourinary, reproductive, immunological, and even genetic disease. Because atmospheric climate manipulation using coal-fly-ash-based aerosols represents a potential globally pervasive environmental-source of this toxic element, it must be recognized and appropriate steps taken to halt climate geoengineering.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variations of PM2.5 Concentration across the Cities of the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

V. O. Shaibu, M. O. Nwagbara

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/35261

Fine particulate matter PM2.5 has attracted much attention both scientific and public, due to its effects on human health. This study used remotely sensed PM2.5 to analyze the seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentration across the cities of the Niger delta region of Nigeria. PM2.5 data that was used for this study was Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), it was acquired from remotely sensed satellite data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA’s) earth observing system data and information system, PM2.5 concentration data were obtained from 2001 to 2015 and two-way ANOVA was employed to analyze the seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentration. The ANOVA result showed that PM2.5 concentration in the Niger delta varied from season to season, and that PM2.5 is significantly higher in the dry season 20.72 µg/m3 than in the rainy season 17.27 µg/m3 across the cities of the Niger delta with Yenagoa having the highest concentration in dry season (25.5 µg/m3) with standard deviation of (9.3 µg/m3) and Calabar having the highest concentration in rainy season (23.4 µg/m3) with standard deviation of (18.4 µg/m3). This means that there is a wide variation in PM2.5 concentration over the years across the cities. The effect of PM2.5 concentration is higher in dry season than in rainy season across the region, and all the state capitals have annual mean values of PM2.5 above the WHO guideline value of 10 µg/m. PM2.5 concentration is increasing with years especially as a result of the illegal refining activities, gas and oil pipeline bombing and gas flaring activities, this implies that PM2.5 concentration will continue to increase in the dry season more than in the rainy season. This situation can lead to adverse health and environmental health effects such as hospital admissions, asthma, cardiovascular or lung disease including premature death on human beings with continuous exposure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphotectonic and Basin Parameters of the Noa-Dihing River, Eastern Himalayas

Diganta Kumar, B. P. Duarah

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/38082

The Noa-Dihing River, an important tributary of the Brahmaputra River flows through two tectonic domains viz. Mishimi Massif and Naga-Patkai Range in the Eastern Himalayas. Active tectonics and tectonic evolution of a terrain are reflected in the basin geometry of a river. So it is easy to trace back the history of the involved tectonic forces involved the basin evolution through space and time by studying the river morphometric and the basin parameters. Seismological study of the basin and its surroundings is also another advantageous tool that helps better understanding of the evolution process, if corroborated with the morphometric and basin parameter data. The present results show existence of two distinct tectonic regimes that control the evolution of the Noa-Dihing river basin, the right bank  part of the Noa-Dihing falling on the Mishimi Massif, and the left bank part and the upper catchment falling in the Naga-Patkai range of the Indo-Myanmar tectonic belt. From the results it appears that lithology is also one of the controlling factors for the arising basin geometry. The downstream part of the basin is structurally controlled and got tilted northward.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Land Use Changes and Impacts of Dam Construction on the Mbaa River, Ikeduru, Nigeria

M. C. Iwuji, C. P. Iheanyichukwu, J. D. Njoku, F. I. Okpiliya, S. O. Anyanwu, G. T. Amangabara, K. O. E. Ukaegbu

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/34984

This research was conducted in order to ascertain the impact of the earth dam on the physical environment of Mbaa River using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques. The Specific objective was to use multi-temporal images to assess land use and land cover changes as well as determine the extent of land degradation around the watershed as a result of the dam. Landsat 7 ETM+ of 2000 of path 188 and row 56, and the Nigeria Sat-X image of 2nd December 2011 were classified to identify the changes in the physical features of the watershed. The study revealed variations in the land cover of the study area with land degradation and erosion in both the upstream and downstream area and submergence of farm lands in the upstream. The result from the watershed delineation revealed that the shorelines of the upstream increased to an approximate length of 109 m while the downstream shrank to 18 m. There was about 8.05% reduction between the years 2000-2011 in the total area covered by the water body in the area. Urgent action need to be taken to reclaim degraded land especially downstream of the dam through re-afforestation.

Open Access Review Article

Kyoto Protocol and the Challenges of Implementation in Nigeria

B. C. Anwadike

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/35472

This review paper focuses on the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol and the challenges of compliance and implementation in Nigeria Historically the Kyoto Protocol is an amendment of the agreement on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) signed in the Japanese City of Kyoto in Dec. 1997. It was signed and ratified by 55 industrialized nations of the world before it came into force in Feb. 2005 to reduce the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission implicated in global warming to a safe and tolerable limit. Presently a total of 191 countries of the world have signed the treaty with only 55 industrialized nations ratifying it making the implementation of the treaty obligatory on them. The primary GHG that the treaty addressed to reduce their emission levels are CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, Hydro fluorocarbon and Per fluorocarbon. The treaty set specific emission reduction targets for each industrialized nation for compliance. This paper relies on secondary GHG emission data in Nigeria for the review. Nigeria is a signatory to the treaty but is yet to ratify it. Some of the sources of the gases in Nigeria include natural gas and fossil fuel combustion, bush burning, gas flaring, fairly used refrigerators and air conditioners, overpopulation, forest fire etc. Challenges facing the implementation of the treaty in Nigeria includes; overdependence on fossil fuel and natural gas as the major foreign exchange earner, absence of reliable data on GHG, emission, absence of sound and sustainable environmental policies and programs, over lapping policies among environmental agencies of government etc .Greenhouse gases build up in Nigeria is on the rise especially CO2 above the pristine value causing a rise in the atmospheric temperature overtime. The effects include desertification, loss of ecosystem and biodiversity, flooding etc. Thus there is the need to mitigate some of the anthropogenic activities that increases the level of GHG in the atmosphere that is in compliance with the provisions of the conventions and treaties on the environment Nigeria needs to ratify the protocol because the benefits outweighs the cost and the revenue loss fear that is anticipated from overdependence on crude oil can be allayed by the diversification of the economy to environmentally friendly ventures such as the development of solar, nuclear, hydro power sources and the exploitation of solid minerals.