For farmers to decide whether or not to adopt a particular measure, they must first perceive that rainfall variability has actually occurred. It is necessary to have full knowledge of farmers’ perception on rainfall variability. Therefore, the present study sought to understand agro-pastoralist perceptions of rainfall variability and its effect on their livelihoods. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that incorporated both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Stratified random sampling was done to sample respondents for household survey. This consisted of 310 household heads. Structured questionnaires, field observations and secondary data were used to collect data. The data from interview schedules was analyzed using content analysis, described and summarized. Results show that majority of the households had noticed variations in rainfall and its impact on their livelihoods. They perceived that rainfall variability to be increasing causing food shortages (82%), poor crop yields (72%), water scarcity (64%) and reduced livestock holdings (60%). Consequently, households had adopted both on-farm and off-farm. At farm level, diversification into drought-tolerant and commercial crops (80%) reduced livestock numbers (78%) timing farm operations (76%) and changing to heat-tolerant breeds (60%) were the main strategies adopted by the respondents. Off-farm strategies included observing early signs of weather (50%), terminating schooling for children (39%) and diversifying income sources into mainly charcoal burning (34%) and sand harvesting (31%). Therefore, to secure livelihoods and improve food security in the lowlands of Marakwet West Sub-County, rain-fed agriculture needs to be complemented with irrigation agriculture and water harvesting techniques.
The discourse on climate variability has gained prominence over the years, considering the crucial role climate plays in the development of the human society. This perhaps led to the proposition of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 13 which stresses on the need to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. Unarguably, one of the most affected sectors in this dispensation is the agricultural sector. Crop production in Sub Saharan Africa is predominantly rain-fed and climate variability through fluctuations in rainfall and temperature pose a significant threat to the sustainability of this sector. Although a climatic regime is broadly established for the Western Highland agro-ecological system of Cameroon, specific local peculiarities are necessary to be understood especially in Bali which fairly lies within a transitional zone between the grassfield and the coastal forest zones of Cameroon. In the context of Bali, knowledge gaps exist with respect to crop-specific response to climate variability. An understanding of the crops-specific responses and their agricultural planning implications is necessary. In this paper, we employed an exploratory approach to examine crop-specific responses to climate variability and their implications for agricultural planning. We used the Pearson’s correlation analysis to correlate climatic records (temperature and rainfall) for 25 years (1991-2015) with the output of specific food crops (maize, beans, cassava and cocoyam). We equally underscore the climatic thresholds for the target crops in a bid to understand the deviations thereof. Our analysis led to the conclusion that with a 1% margin of error, both positive and negative correlations exist between crops and the varying climatic elements. By implication, farmers could invest more in the production of more climate tolerant crops in the face of projected increase in temperature.
The scope of Geography expanded with changing trends in the world. 21st century is fast growing with modern trends in computer technology information systems and virtual world to obtain data about the physical and cultural worlds, and to use these data to do research or to solve practical problems as such. The use of traditional cartographic techniques in teaching terminology of Geography has turned with innovative teaching methods with computer aided Geo-informatic technologies. The current digital and analog electronic devices facilitate the inventory or resources and the rapid execution of arithmetic or logical operations. These information systems are undergoing much improvement and are able to create, manipulate, store and use spatial data much faster rate as compared to conventional methods.
The science of Geo-informatics is a cluster of information sciences like Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and Photogrammetry. The GIS has roots in the analysis of information on maps, and overcomes many of the limitations of manual analysis. As a visual tool, maps are most effective in communicating spatial data. The vast majority of modern cartography is done with the help of computers, especially using GIS. With an advent of Remote sensing technology, satellite data is being increasingly used for mapping, monitoring and assessment of various spatial studies particularly in Geographic literature.
The teaching of Geography starts with the latitude and longitudes. The real-time information regarding lat-long and the elevation of the points established with the satellite-based radio-navigations system namely, Global Positioning System (GPS). The terrain models like DEM, DTM and DSM created with Photogrammetry and GIS, with advanced 3D models of spatial features of geographic literature are the real-time innovative teaching methods in Geography.
Suites of borehole logs comprising gamma-ray, electrical resistivity, neutron and density logs from four wells in the offshore Niger Delta were evaluated for their hydrocarbon potential. The various lithologic types penetrated by the wells were differentiated on the basis of the Gamma-Ray log into sand, shale and shaly-sand beds.
Three (3) sand bodies were delineated and correlated across the (O) field. The three sands were further identified as potential hydrocarbon reservoirs. The evaluated petrophysical parameters for the reservoir layers have porosity, range of (24 -30)% and hydrocarbon saturation, range of (72 - 80)%.
The use of the geophysical well logs have allowed for the evaluation of rock formation properties such as hydrocarbon saturation, porosity and reservoir thickness that will make drilling and production decisions a lot easier. The bulk of the hydrocarbon was encountered between (2920-2978)m within the transitional Agbada formation. Gas-Water Contact has been encountered by the well at 2984 m TVDSS.
Overpopulation has progressively impacted on the quality of urban life especially in developing countries of the world including Nigeria. The constant and arbitrary encroachment on virtually every available land space is a sad phenomenon distorting living patterns in most urban centres and resulting in poor environmental quality. The very building fabrics of architectural structures are seriously affected by overcrowding with negative impacts on the design-worth of the built environment where open spaces are lacking or available but not sustained through appropriate landscape designs. This study examines the causes and implications of open space abuses and the decay of city infrastructure within the satellite towns of Lagos, Nigeria. It reveals that the various abuses are traceable to lack of landscape plan and ineffective plan implementation by the management authorities of the public sector. It noted that while the public estates are left to rot away due to poor management plan and strategy, the private counterparts have better maintenance strategy with effective implementation. The paper concluded that overpopulation in the urban centre of Lagos and other emerging cities of developing nations can be better managed if the public sector adopts the more effective implementation and monitoring strategies of the private sector.