Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey of the Exploitation of Medicinal Plants: Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Taraba State in Perspective

E. D. Oruonye, V. N. Ojeh, Y. M. Ahmed, D. Mberinyang

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/38335

This study appraised the uses of some indigenous medicinal plants in Gashaka Gumti National Park and the methods used in exploiting and processing the plants. Data for the study were collected through field observation, interview, and structured questionnaire. A hundred and five (105) structured questionnaires were administered to local communities around the park. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study reveal that there are about 35 families of medicinal plants species found in the Park and the majority of them are reported to be wild. There has been little effort to document these plant species. The findings also show that the bark, leaf, seed, root, and stem of medicinal plants are used for different purposes. The methods of processing these parts of the medicinal plants are boiling, soaking in water and pounding depending on the type of ailment or disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dimensional Basin Morphometry and Discharge in the Coastal Plains Sands of Ikpa River, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

I. S. Umo, M. N. Ezemonye, M. C. Ike, A. I. Enwereuzor

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/38699

This article investigates the relationship between discharge and dimensional morphometry in Ikpa River Basin. Five-dimensional morphometric parameters were generated using topographic maps (sheet 322 NE; sheet 322 SE; sheet 323 SW; and sheet 331 NW) with Geographic Information System of the basin area. Six sub-basins were selected using stratified sampling method, gauged and discharge computed for descriptive and multivariate analyses. The descriptive analysis of discharge characteristics using percentages and ranks revealed remarkable variation between dry season 80.45 cubic meters per second representing 31.3 percent and rainy season 128.21 cubic meters per second representing 68.7 percent of the average seasonal discharge. A Linear Regression Model of the effect of stream frequency, basin intensity, relative perimeter, stream length, and basin area on mean total discharge yielded a coefficient of 0.998 representing 99.8 percent of the influence of dimensional morphometric parameters on discharge in Ikpa River Basin. ANOVA was employed for the test of significance at (0.05)5/2 confidence level. The computed F value yielded 79.044 and the F Table value of 19.30. This paper established that discharge in Ikpa River Basin is significantly influenced by stream frequency, basin intensity, relative perimeter, stream length, and basin area. This paper concluded that the prevalent seasonal flooding in the estuarine and erosion in the non-estuarine areas of the basin is associated with the nature of dimensional morphometry. Hence there is need for more studies on relief and shape parameter so as to identify appropriate (structural and non-structural) management options for the fluvio-geomorphologic hazards in the basin area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Subsurface Using Schlumbeger Electrical Resistivity Method and Dynamic Cone Penetration Tests

S. O. Nyako, Festus Anane Mensah, Bernard Ofosu, Kwabena Opuni, Kwame Sarpong

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/33250

Geophysical and Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Test (DCPT) were conducted at a site to characterize the subsurface as part of a near surface studies designed to determine the strength properties of the soil for a building foundation design. 1-D resistivity method involving the Schlumberger array was carried out at the proposed building site. Soil strength properties and grain size distribution were obtained by DCPT and laboratory analysis of soil samples respectively. Qualitative interpretation of the resistivity data suggested an A- type curve (where layer resistivity; ρ123), showing increasing resistivity with depth. The layer boundaries were not well defined due to poor resistivity contrast between the layers at depth. A 2-layer earth model is suggested with the average resistivity values ρ1 of 521.76 ohm-m and ρ2 of 819.94 ohm-m topping a bottom layer of a higher resistivity ρ3. Qualitative interpretation of the soundings estimated the first and second layer boundaries at 5 m and 10 m below ground respectively. Correlation of resistivity values with characteristic soils resistivity suggested a material composed of clayey, silt on the surface and sand with admixture of gravel and cobbles dominant at depth which accounted for the high resistivity. Conductive moist clay on top could account for the low resistivity values. DCPT results showed an increase in average bearing capacity from 300 to 500 kPa, to the depths of 1-2 m and decreasing from 250 to 160 kPa from 4-5 m, this suggested that the survey area is characterized by a relatively thin (1-2 m) competent top formation overlying non-cohesive materials. The non-cohesive material correlated with increasing resistivity values with depth from 4m below ground surface.  These methods discussed have suggested alternatives to the more expensive and time consuming procedures of soil characterization, as well as provide preliminary field data to limit the number of confirmatory drill holes in site investigations.


Open Access Original Research Article

Heat-Sum Calculation in Forecasting Maize Phenological Stages and Harvesting Date in Lagos South West, Nigeria

G. A. Afuye, V. N. Ojeh, B. A. Okunlola, V. F. Adejokun

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/34670

Maize production is of primary importance in the world, especially considering that its cultivation takes up one of the greatest ratios of land used for agricultural production.Based on analysis of rainfall pattern and thermal regime, maize phenological stages and harvesting dates has been investigated with the use of heat-sum calculation along with the seasonal rainfall forecast by NIMET in relation to maize crop production. Data were collected from Agro-meteorological Observatory of Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Oshodi Lagos, Nigeria. Maize phenological records were collected during the period between 2005 and 2010. Also, information obtained includes phenological records for ten different period of maize crop forecast. The monthly mean values of all parameters were further averaged to obtain the annual mean. Microsoft Excel was used to show the correlation between these parameters rainfall, temperature and crop yield data between 1995 and 2010. Heat-sum calculation was employed as a forecasting guide of growing phase of maize crop and harvesting date in the study area. Graph of the yield were plotted against temperature and rainfall. Results show the length of growing-period with use of heat sum calculation and harvesting date of maize crop grown was forecasted. Results show that maize crop could be grown with the use of crop weather calendar considering life history and mean dates of important epoch of crop growth and development of maize phonological stages, sowing to germination, germination to emergence, emergence to 3rd leaf, 3rd leaf to 9th leaf, 9th leaf to tasselling, tasselling to flowering, flowering to soft dough, soft dough to hard dough, hard dough to harvesting dates with total number of 73 days. Heat units, expressed in growing days are frequently used to describe the timing of biological processes. The basic equation used was HS = [(TMAX + TMIN)/2]−TBASE, where TMAX and TMIN are daily maximum and minimum air temperature, respectively, and TBASE is the base temperature. The methods of interpreting this equation for calculating heat-sum is if the daily mean temperature is less than the base, it is set equal to the base temperature or if TMAX or TMIN < TBASE they are reset equal to TBASE. Average rainfall observed was 30mm in 10 days with duration of wet spell > 4 days. High wind exceeded 40knot. The minimum temperature recorded was 10ºC at night with maximum temperature of 400C during the day. Furthermore, result show that 10ºC is the base temperature of maize below this, the growth will be zero. 25º ─ 38ºC is the optimum temperature for best or highest yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Satellite Imagery in the Differentiation of the Invasive Species of Nipa from Mangrove Vegetation

John Onwuteaka, Mike Uwagbae

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/38454

Mangrove forests form one of the primary coastal ecosystems in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world with a high biodiversity value. Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to the Nigerian coasts, providing numerous biodiversity and ecosystem services and supporting coastal livelihoods within the Niger Delta. The gradual decline in the size of the Mangrove ecosystem, due to Nipa fruticans infestation, has spanned a period of over 40 years. So far, no quantitative estimate of loss of these Mangrove habitats has been carried out. This is as a result of the closeness in spectral characteristics between Nipa and different species of Mangrove and the difficulty of differentiating Nipa using earlier remote sensing products such as Landsat, JERS, Radarsat, SPOT and ERS. To address this gap, new satellite imagery was used to extract both textural and spectral information. This imagery, Pleiades and GeoEye-2, contained 16 high-resolution spectral bands that capture information in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR)for the first time. The study was validated with groundtruth surveys leading to the differentiation of Mangrove and Nipa in an area of interest measuring 162 sq. km along the Andoni River Estuary. From the results, major threats of Nipa to Biodiversity of the Mangrove were compiled. A ratio of 1:24 of Mangrove to Nipa within an area of over 16,200 hectares is indicative of a very high threat that can lead to extinction of Mangrove species. This TEXVEG tool’s capacity to determine loss of Mangrove species from Nipa infestation across the Niger Delta landscape will help environmental decision makers provide guidance for biodiversity conservation of Mangrove species. This technique has great potential for mitigating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in areas with low Mangrove diversity and high Mangrove area and species loss.