Open Access Minireview Article

Identification of Groundwater Potential Zones Using Lineament Analysis in Parts of Ilesa Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

Olumuyiwa A. Odundun, Riliwan O. Bakare

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/38726

This paper is focused on mapping of lineaments within the Schist Belt of Ilesa using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) tools. An approach which involved studies of lithology and lineaments were useful for a proper assessment of groundwater bearing potential zones in the study area. The study area is within Ilesa metropolis, which lies within the Precambrian Basement Complex, hosting fracture zone aquifers which are promising sites for groundwater exploration.

The rock types within the study area can be grouped into migmatite-gneiss complex, mafic-ultramafic suite (or amphibolite complex), metasedimentary assemblages and an intrusive suite of granitic rocks. The mapped structural lineaments were analysed using lineament density and lineament frequency analyses on ILWIS 3.1 Academic and ArcGIS 10.1.

The lineament density values ranged from 0.00003 to 0.001 km/km2. These indicate areas of poor water-bearing potential to areas of high water-bearing potential. Presentation of the detected lineaments shows two possible orientations in the directions of NE and SW which are also principal directions of the regional structures in basement complex of Nigeria.

Conclusively, axial directions present the direction of groundwater flow in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protein Enrichment of Agro–Industrial Waste by Trichoderma harzianum EMCC 540 through Solid State Fermentation for Use as Animal Feed

Osama A. Abo Siada, M. S. Negm, M. E. Basiouny, M. A. Fouad, S. Elagroudy

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/39019

The disposal of agro-industrial wastes is a serious problem and their deposition poses health hazard for all the living beings. Agro-industrial residues constitute a major proportion (almost 30%) of worldwide agricultural production. SSF methods are widely used for the protein enrichment of agro–industrial waste.  The main aim of the present study is to use the Trichoderma harzianum with five different types from agro-industrial wastes (peels of mango, orange, apple, banana and tomato) for the enrichment of protein for wastes by SSF to use as animal feed. Fermentation temperature is one of the most important factors in fermentation process. The agro-industrial waste samples were incubated at different temperatures to determine the ideal fermentation temperature. From results the optimum fermentation temperature used to obtained the maximum crude protein by using Trichoderma harzianum was 28ᵒC. Crude protein content in fermented substrates increased from (23.35, 21.88, 24.13,16.19 and 9.5) g% to (84.46, 33.37, 28.60, 21.65 and 17.60) g% for peels of tomato, mango, orange, apple and banana respectively. Tomato peels is a good substrate for protein enrichment followed by mango peel, orange peel, apple peel and banana peel respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Vulnerability Evaluation of the Afro-Alpine Ecosystem Using Remote Sensing and GIS: A Case Study in Mountain Abune Yosefe, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Getachew Kebede

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/38982

This study aims to evaluate the environmental vulnerability of the Mt. Abune yosef Afro-alpine ecosystem in the North Highlands of Ethiopia. Remote sensing, Geographic information system (RS,GIS) and Spatial Principal Component Analysis (SPCA) as well as the structure and semi-structured questionnaire interview were employed to evaluate the environmental vulnerability. The Mt. Abune yosef afro-alpine ecosystem, located in the North part of Amhara Region, is characterized by the complex of different fauna and flora. To analyze environmental vulnerability, remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) technologies are adopted, and an ecological numerical model is developed using spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) method. The model contains seven factors including altitude, slope, aspect, land use type, vegetation cover, human and livestock population density. According to the numerical results, the vulnerability is classified into four levels: potential, light, medial, and massive concentration utilizing the cluster principle. The environmental vulnerability distribution and its dynamic change in the past 30 years from 1985 to 2015 are analyzed and discussed. The results show that the environmental vulnerability in the study area is at an intermediate level, and the Integrated Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVSI) value of 2.856, 3.0698 and 2.925 at 1985, 2000 and 2015 respectively and my study shows the driving forcing of dynamic change are mainly caused by human, social and economic activities. To decrease farmland expansion and livestock grazing, alternative income generating activities such as eco-tourism development is better in the surrounding of Mt. Abune yosef Afro-alpine ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Title of the Article: Assessment and Risk of the Impact of Air Pollution in Dakar

Aminou Backo Salao, Cheikh Diop, Faribordz Livardjani, Aminata Mbow Djokhane

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jgeesi/2017/v13i410714

This study assessed the risks of air pollution in the city of Dakar. The objective is to evaluate the concentration levels of the pollutants measured in different sites of the Air Quality Management Center (CQA) of Dakar. The study took place between January and August 2013 and is divided into three phases or measurement campaigns. The first step consisted of continuous and real-time measurements of the different types of pollutants using automatic analysers that are specific to them in different zones, defined according to the kind of pollution (Urban, Traffic-related, or Industrial). In the second phase, the pollutants were transmitted under controlled conditions to the CGQA laboratory by varying the levels of concentrations reached for each of the pollutants studied. In the third phase, the analysis should be compared to the regulatory threshold values for health protection, which are NS-05-062 and WHO. The results showed that there is excellent seasonal variability in the concentrations of some pollutants studied, especially the suspended particles (PM10 and PM2.5). The analysis of variance revealed that the first two measurement campaigns (January-June) were the most affected by these pollutants, this is explained by a high concentration of dust in the air emanating from the North, mainly from the Sahara, which has a significant effect on recorded concentration peaks, but also due to weather phenomena during this study period. The quality of the air is appreciated through a global index for the city of Dakar. The evolution of this index shows a medium to poor air quality during the dry season (January-June) and good air quality at the heart of the rainy season (July-August).

Open Access Original Research Article

Community’s Perception towards Adoption of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) in Artisanal Gold Mining within Nandi and West Pokot Counties, Kenya

K. E. Yego, S. Kebenei, A. Sitienei

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/39273

Use of ICT in artisanal gold mining provides information on new improved gold mining technologies which are environmentally friendly with a higher recovery rate of gold hence better income to the miners while conserving the environment. For the mining communities to decide whether or not to adopt ICT, they must first perceive it. Therefore, perception is a necessary prerequisite for adoption. Therefore, the present study sought to assess perceptions of the mining communities towards the adoption of ICT in artisanal gold mining within Nandi and West Pokot Counties, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that incorporated both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Simple random sampling was used to establish respondents for household survey. Structured questionnaires were randomly distributed to 279 household heads. Findings from the study showed that ICT could be used to mitigate structural challenges and serve many functions in artisanal gold mining only if it is designed to serve them. ICT has a variety of applications in artisanal gold mining activities and will serve as an enabler to business processes changing the situation in artisanal gold mining. The respondents affirmed that ICT holds the key to new production technologies to be used in mining such as geo-mapping systems. Unavailable geo-mapping systems make miners to engage in Trial and era methods leading to unnecessary land destruction. Therefore, for improved gold mining technologies in the study areas, ICT should be adopted.