There are studies on spatial demography that tackled issues related to households livelihood, however little is known regarding toilet facility despite the fact that it is a significant element in household livelihood. Its spatial variability, type, methods, and adequacy are sensitive issues of pressing health concern in rural developing countries like Nigeria. Our objectives are to determine if spatial clustering of Insanitary Toilet Facility exists among Nigerian states and to calculate Z-Sores and p-values to determine statistically significant hot spot states. We used data from Nigerian population and housing census. A GIS Pattern analysis method was employed for both Analyzing pattern and Mapping cluster analysis. Analyzing pattern revealed the presence of spatial clustering of variables with Z-Score value of 2.76 for Nearby bush beach and field, Public toilet 4.64 and Other 2.11. The p-values are statistically significant at p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively, the observed pattern could not have been the result of random chance. Mapping cluster analysis shows Hot spot states for Nearby Bush Beach and Field to include Ekiti, Kwara, Lagos, Ogun, Osun and Oyo, Public toilets Abia, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Delta, Imo and Rivers, states, Other type include Abia, Anambra, Bayelsa, Delta, Imo and Rivers states. This study has implication in pre-disaster management phase, environmental sanitation and control and the budgetary provision by authorities. We limit to spatial pattern hence recommend further study to examine predictor factors to predict future vulnerable households. We recommend adapting water closet and well planned pit latrine.
The metasomatised dioritic rocks are well exposed in and around Umsopri area (N 25°49/ and E91°39/), Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya, along with granitoid rocks. The gneissic complex represents the basement of the Shillong plateau comprising a group of high-grade metamorphic rocks including basic granulite, amphibolite, quartzofeldspathic gneiss, migmatite, calc-silicate gneiss and garnet sillimanite-bearing metapelite. The basement rocks of the Shillong plateau is intruded by Neoproterozoic granitoids of multiple phases. The granitoids are younger in age from south-west to north-east. The Shillong Plateau along with Mikir Hills experienced four major phases of felsic magmatic episodes at ~1800 Ma, ~1600 Ma, ~1400 Ma, and ~500 Ma. Petrographicaly, the rock is composed of K-feldspar, plagioclase, hornblende, quartz along with accessory phases like sphene, apatite, zircon, rutile, ilmenite, etc. The metasomatic effect has been inferred by the formation of biotite and sphene at the expanse of Hornblende. The rocks have moderate SiO2 content (52.55 to 55.84 wt%). Trace elements Rb, Ba, Nb shows a negative trend with SiO2 concentrations. The high field strength elements like Nb, Zr, La, Th, U show a negative correlation and Y shows a positive correlation with an increase in abundance of SiO2. Large ion lithophile element Rb shows a negative correlation with SiO2 while Sr shows a positive correlation with SiO2. Geochemical features indicates that the rock is metaluminous in character and tectonically in the WPG (within plate granitoid) field.
Key element for developing countries in remote sensing research is the availability of data particularly the newly developed sensors such as SAR data. This research aims at exploring the potentiality of utilising RADARSAT-2 (which is obtained freely from Canadian Space Agency) in integration with optical data from Landsat 8 and ASTER sensors for lithological mapping of the Nekhel area, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Optical enhancements such as Principal Component Analysis together with Spectral rationing of selected bands of Landsat 8 and ASTER data provided an active approach in characterising the surface sediments and mapping the lithology of the area of study. Data fusion of optical and radar remote sensing data using Color Normalization Transformation aided for further characterization and improvement of identification of lithological units. The Freeman-Durden decomposition method used to determine the dominant scattering mechanisms and to outline the current state of the surface cover. Mapping and characterising surface sediment of desert environments regarding their spectral and backscattering characteristics provide essential information on the geomorphology and depositional history to assess their potential use for economic development.
This study deals with the interrelationship between urbanization and micro-climate of Minna city. The paper examined and analyzed the effect of urbanization on the city’s micro-climate using recorded annual average temperatures and the population figures as bases for calibration. The researchers considered a period of 24 years (1991-2014) in which population data for 1991 and 2006 were obtained and used to project for the missing years. In the like manner the existing temperature records as variables were graphically contrived using correlation and regression statistics to analyzing the trend values of variables. The time series analysis revealed that the city average temperature has a positive relationship at significant value of 0.000 and at t-value of 104.075. However, there were gentle positive relationship between the city population density and its mean temperature. Population growth rate was estimated at 2.8% and with an increase in the city population from 230,169 to 436,887 within the period of 24years (1991-2014). Trends analysis revealed a rise in population density which in turns has impact on the temperature of the city. The researchers from the study concluded that a weak relationship exist between population density and average temperature of Minna at 12% degree of relationship and other elements of microclimate (e.g. relative humidity etc) are been affected at 88% due to other factors. The study recommended the use of automobiles such as tricycle, motorcycle and generator which have less capacity for releasing less carbon monoxide (Co) and also encouraged trees planting which has the benefit of abating high temperature at day time.
Self Potential, an electrical geophysical method is chiefly used in mineral prospecting. Vertical and lateral variations in the conductivity of earth materials produce variations in the potential distribution as measured on the surface thereby giving information of the sub-surface. A self-potential survey was carried out in the study area. Seven locations were considered. The profiles investigated had a total area of 2.34 km2. A total of 315 self potential measurements were taken using the direct potential method with a 10m increase in the electrode spacing along each of the profiles. Obtained data show a negative anomaly of -2 mV to -600 mV and a positive anomaly of 5 mV to 277 mV distributed within the study area. It was observed that the potential anomalies are due to some conductive minerals like graphite and sulphide ore bodies. The Iso-potential contour map of the study area was made with an interval of 50mV which reveals the mineralogical trend of sulphide and graphite ore bodies. It was deduced that Nkwoebo, Umuoram and Egbeada regions of the study area would most likely have a graphite ore body while Umuchime, Amachara and Umuokwom will most likely have a sulphide ore body.