The Dwarakaswar river system is the sub watershed of the Gangetic delta of West Bengal. This is the dominant water flow of the western part of West Bengal, India. The upper catchment of Dwarakeshwar lies on the edge Tamar Porapahar Shear Zone and this upper catchment is the result of Proterozoic orogeny. Here, the basic principle of Hutton that is ‘the present is the key to the past’ has been followed. The study deals with intensive fieldwork with the identification of ontological sites of upper catchment of river Dwarakeshwar and here three fossil sites have been identified and plotted on maps. Three identified fossil sites are the stem of a woody plant, foot-print of early hominoids and a faunal fossil which appears like a Permian reptile. Those fossil sites are found vicinity to the river water line. Here the identified one wood fossil site and two faunal sites will be the positive impetus to the future study of palaeo-study of botany, zoology geology and geological and climate of western part of West Bengal, India.
This study surveyed the atmospheric stability pattern in the lower troposphere over Enugu from 2010-2015. The widely and acceptably used Pasquill-Gifford stability scheme was utilized in evaluating the stability categories. Six-hourly synoptic data parameters for temperature, wind speed and cloud cover acquired from the Era-Interim platform at 1000 mbar pressure level were used in the analysis. The data were obtained at 0.125 degree resolution. Results showed that very stable stability classes D (neutral), E (stable), and F (very stable) conditions occurred during the night and early hours of dawn. Also, while class D dominated during the wet season, classes E and F portrayed a reverse trend during the dry season. During the Day, stability classes A (very unstable), B (moderately unstable) and C (slightly unstable) prevailed, however, (class C) prevailed throughout the year. While stability class A was dominant from December to January, with its least influence during the peak of the wet season at noontime, stability classes B and C prevailed during the wet season and was lowest at the peak of the dry season. The occurrence of stability class D at 6:00 pm local time indicates the beginning of transition periods, where increased wind speeds moderates the effects of heat fluxes from the earth’s surface. The surveyed atmospheric stability conditions in Enugu city indicates that emissions will be constrained at ground level during the night, where anthropogenic sources of emissions remain beneath the inversion layer. Nevertheless, where the sources are beyond the inversion layer, dispersion will take place upward away from ground level. Therefore, it is compelling that governments, agencies, and industries control emissions from industries within the city especially at night time to avoid ground level pollutant concentrations that will affect boundary layer dwellers. Also, potential emitters should be restrained from being sited at locations where pollutants could be concentrated with sensitive receptors.
The study was carried out to assess the impact of capacity building and its implication on sustainable forestry management in south-west Nigeria. Primary data were obtained from 152 forestry officials across the forestry administrative zones in the southwest Nigeria. Structured questionnaire were used with oral interview. Questions were asked on staffing, funding, institutional structures, staff training and development, qualification of staff, salary, legal and policy issues and the issue of rights and tenure. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results revealed that across all the states in the South-west Nigeria, most of the officials (32.9%) were uniformed or vocational staff, followed by the professionals (25%), 16.5% were boundary guards, 14.5% technicians and 11.2% forest attendants. Only 36.2% of the forestry staff indicated that regular staff training was organized by the state forest services. 77 percent of the respondents indicated that forestry staffs were inadequate while 77.6% were not satisfied with their present salary. Sustainable forest management in Nigeria has suffered serious setbacks due to inadequate staff and the training and development of the available ones. The government should spontaneously respond with appropriate political will and proper funding which should be both adequate and timely.
Flooding is a significant hydrological hazard in the world and has elicited responses from government and non-government agencies alike due to the damages it portends. This study was formulated on this backdrop, with the objective of designing a flood risk-vulnerability map of Ikom Local Government Area. The types of data employed were majorly secondary. Interviews were also primarily adopted. The multi-criteria assessment meant a systematic combination of independent parameter inputs (distance from river, rainfall intensity, elevation, land use, slope and soil; abbreviated as “DRELSS”) for the analyses. Analytical processes such as buffering, slope generation, interpolation, classification, reclassification and the weighted overlay were used in the ArcMap platform. The methods were all based on existing literature, authors expert understanding and standard analytical procedures. The flood risk-vulnerability map produced from the analysis shows 5 risk zones (very high, high, moderate, low and very low-risk zones). From the analysis, it was discovered that areas close to the rivers were more prone to flooding. A total of 7 communities were within very high-risk zone, which also covers 28 square kilometers (sq km) while 16 communities were in high risk zones within an acreage of 305 sq km, both only making up a significant 16 percent of the total Ikom land area, most of which had built-up human activities. A follow-up ground-truthing exercise bolstered the findings of flood occurrence in the deduced communities. The necessity of a multi-criteria flood risk-vulnerability evaluation in Ikom, like any other area, is thus indispensable as it provides for precaution, preparedness and post-hazard planning. The findings herewith are no doubt vital to the government, urban planners, insurers, emergency services and the likes.
This study assessed climate change adaptation, mitigation and resilience strategies in the Trans Amadi Industrial area of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The study utilised satellite image and field surveys to obtain information. An inventory of tree species used in urban greening activities was conducted. Carbon dioxide levels in the area were measured using the Aeroqual 500 series air pollution meter while Meteorological data from 2006 to 2015 was obtained from the Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET) and complemented with field measurements. Results from the study indicated that there were increased carbon dioxide and temperature levels in Trans Amadi from 363.3 ppm to 369 ppm and from 28.3ºC to 30.8ºC respectively. 55.4% of respondents have resilience strategies in place however 51.5% of these strategies were not sufficient. A total of 74 different species of trees distributed in 29 unique families were inventoried. The findings discussed were in line with global concerns and efforts regarding climate change and global warming measures.