Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover Changes Using Spectral Indices in the Tsunami Affected Areas in Kerala, India

S. Sarun, P. Vineetha, R. Anil Kumar, V. K. Jayalekshmi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/41927

The study focused on the implication of land use change induced by the post-tsunami reconstruction and rehabilitation initiatives. Two adjoining coastal panchayats of Alappad in Kollam district and Arattupuzha in Alappuzha district, suffered maximum damage by the 26th December 2004 tsunami, were chosen as the study area. In the post-tsunami context, these panchayats received the largest reconstruction and rehabilitation initiatives. Hence implications of post-tsunami reconstruction and rehabilitation on land use in the area was analyzed within a duration of 16 years using multi-temporal Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper + and Operational Land Imager satellite data. The land use of 2001 to 2016 were taken into consideration for fulfilling the objective of the study. For the land use classification analysis the study utilizes a variety of spectral indices like Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI)and Normalised Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) to automatically separate one land use/land cover from other. Along with that supervised classification was also done for the final land use classification. The accuracy assessment was followed by the classification and it reflects the accuracy with a kappa value of 0.678 which falls under an acceptable range.The result forms the comparison of each land use from 2001-2016 during a period of 16 years summarizes that the major increase in the study area was observed in built up with an increment of 5.3% in 2001 to 14.3% in 2016 along with a decrease in vegetation from 62.4% to 57.3% .Rest of the land uses shows a marginal change. Thus this study revealed various rehabilitation and reconstruction initiatives after the tsunami have significantly impacted the land use of the area. So proper land use change planning can be adopted to protect the environment and thereby mitigating exposure to future hazards and risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Crime: A Rising Problem at Duars Region, West Bengal, India

Chandan Datta, Amitajyoti Bagchi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/42089

Nowadays, increasing environmental crime is causing for enormous environmental degradation at Duars region of West Bengal. Disappearance of one organism from the ecosystem can pose serious impact on survival of other organisms. There are different kinds of environmental crime carried out in forest track areas such as illegal logging, wild animal trafficking, boulder mining from the rivers moving through forest etc. Huge profit margin in such activity and poor vigilance in the forest is fuelling environmental crimes. Being attacked by easy earning poor people gets engaged in such kind of illegal activities. This study has also been found out a relationship between deprivation and involvement of rural people with that kind of illegal activity using derivation index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sedimentary Structures and Lithofacies Found in a Channel Bar of Brahmaputra River in Panikhaiti, Kamrup District, Assam

Satyajit Sonowal, Beauty Dutta, Jayanta Jivan Laskar

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/41822

Accumulation of sediments in river channels often leads to the formation of sediment bars. They form prominent elevated regions during the non-flood period within the river channel, and contain characteristic bedform features and internal stratification. These features reflect the hydrodynamic conditions prevailing during the deposition of the sediments. The present study deals with the recognition and interpretation of various bedform features and lithofacies that had developed in a channel bar of the Brahmaputra River, in Panikhaiti near Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam. The different bedform features that are identified are small and mega ripples, water level cut marks, mud cracks, worm track and trails and raindrop imprints. Internal stratification was identified in trenches of depth ranging between 1.80 m and 2.25 m. in which eight varieties of lithofacies were identified. These are Trough cross-bedded sand (St), Planar cross-bedded sand (Sp),                 Horizontally laminated sand (Sh), Climbing ripple lamination (Sr), Convolute bedding (Fc), Flaser bedding (Sf), Massive sand (Sm) and Massive Mud (Fm). The lithofacies associations indicate deposition of sediments under multiple episodes of flood, and characterized by multiple migrations from low flow regime conditions to high flow regime conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Surface Mining and Infrastructural Development on Rural Resources Degradation in Part of Adamawa State, Nigeria

Edwin Nyaku Gandapa

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/31493

Increase in intervention with the Earth’s surface for various purposes affects environmental resources. In Hong Local Government Area from 1976 to 2009 there have been increases in        laterite harvesting, road networks and settlement sites with adverse effects on rural resources.               The types of data required are information related to mining pits, rural resources harvested and types of infrastructural developments that were generated from landsat images, the field, respondents and published related materials. The materials used for data collection were measuring tape, Global Position System and interview schedule. ArcGIS (Version 9.3) was               used to analyze the landsat imageries. The scope covers Hong Local Government Area. The                 focus was to identify the rural resources that are adversely affected by surface mining                            and infrastructural development. The result indicates that rural resources such as vegetation, surface water and economic lands have decreased significantly due to increase in pits, dump                   hills and infrastructural development. It is recommended that pits and quarry sites should be reclaimed through landfill by the construction companies. Furthermore, fast growing and economic trees that are adapted to the environment should be planted on the affected areas by community members to improve vegetation cover. Likewise, prospective research should be conducted to determine the species and magnitude of the endangered wild animals. The result implies an increase in mining and infrastructural developments lead to degradation of vegetation, surface water and economic land on the affected areas.

Open Access Review Article

Water Management and Irrigation Governance in the Anthropocene: Moving from Physical Solutions to Social Involvement

Sandra Ricart

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/42125

The rising water turbulence in the Anthropocene changes the water research and policy agenda, from a water-resource efficiency to a water resilience focus. Irrigation systems, as examples of complex social-ecological systems, deal with both the uncertainty of ecosystem dynamics and the interdependencies resulting from human needs. The water-agriculture nexus is context-dependent, socially constructed and technically uncertain, and it should be analysed as a hydrosocial cycle, which likewise takes into account the inseparability of social and physical aspects of water systems. Water management options have typically been categorized as either supply management or demand management, and even though physical solutions continue to dominate traditional planning approaches, these solutions are facing increasing social opposition. Focused on the Anthropocene dynamics, how to ensure stakeholders’ involvement? The value of stakeholder participation is to reduce the rigid influence of the technocratic state by devolving greater decision-making power to users directly invested in, and knowledgeable of, the management of natural resources. This paper aims to review key questions about water governance in order to promote the transition from being problem-oriented to proactive and forward-thinking management tools by ensuring social learning.