Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling of Groundwater Yield Using GIS and Electrical Resistivity Method in a Basement Complex Terrain, Southwestern Nigeria

Ilugbo Stephen Olubusola, Adebiyi Ayodele Daniel, Olomo Kazeem Oladimeji

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/GEESI/2018/42102

In this research, groundwater yield of Ibodi and its environs have been investigated using hydrogeologic data and vertical electrical sounding. The study was carried out with a view to providing information on the geoelectric characteristic of the subsurface sequence, bedrock topography, subsurface structural features and their hydrogeologic significance, in order to determine possible areas for groundwater yield zones. The study involved the use of Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding data at sixty-eight (68) stations. The results from depth sounding data interpretation revealed four subsurface geoelectric layers namely; the topsoil, weathered layer, fractured basement and the fresh basement The weathered layer and fractured basement constitutes the aquifer units with varying thickness. The second order parameters were determined from the interpretation of vertical electrical sounding results and used to determine the groundwater yield index value (G.W.Y.I) by multiplying the coefficient of anisotropy (λ) and total transverse resistance (T) i.e. (λ*T). The groundwater yield index value was used to model the groundwater yield map The groundwater yield of the entire study area was classified into very high, high yield, moderate yield, low yield and Very low yield. The boreholes data and static water level across the entire study area were used to validate the accuracy of the groundwater yield map and hence of the proposed methodology. The locations and names descriptions of these boreholes and static water level were displayed on the groundwater yield map. The validation was carried out by superimposing the boreholes and static water level data on the groundwater yield map.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flood Vulnerability Assessment in Ilaje, Ondo State, Nigeria

O. O. Adetoro, O. Akanni

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/37633

Flood as a natural disaster has been described as a phenomenon which is a part of earth’s bio-physical processes, which can be devastating due to anthropogenic activities and climatological factors. The study assessed the land use land cover changes (LULCC), assessed the surface temperature changes and evaluated the flood vulnerability level in the study area between 1986 and 2015 using geospatial techniques.

Supervised classification, using maximum likelihood algorithm, was employed for LULC, mono-window algorithm method was adopted in the study to retrieve the Land Surface Temperature (LST) from the imageries selected for this study and sea level rise and storm surge scenario was modelled at different flood heights.

The result showed changes in LULC characteristics, mean ± standard deviations of 22.0°C ± 0.71; 31.12°C ± 0.81; and 24.6°C ± 0.86 were recorded in 1986, 1999 and 2015 respectively in the study area. Higher LST values were however observed in most built-up and bare surfaces than other land use land cover classes while at projected 2, 4 and 6 meters rise, it is expected that 6.56% of the total surface area of the study area will be highly vulnerable to flooding.

It is therefore established that the area is exposed to flooding due to uncontrolled human activities causing climate change which is evident in the land surface temperature values derived and the Land use Land Cover Changes in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ground Magnetic Prospecting in Parts of the Calabar Flank Sedimentary Basin and Environs, South-South Nigeria

D. A. Obi, M. J. Awatt, C. Emeka

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/41486

The Calabar Flank sedimentary basin has remained relatively unexplored using potential fields.               In this study ground, magnetic data was acquired covering about three-quarters of the                         Calabar Flank sedimentary basin. Twenty-five traverses were acquired along major communities, each line covering about 4.5 km-5.0 km with station interval data collected at 0.2 km. The acquired field data was processed using both manual and computer software programs which include reduction to pole, polynomial filtering and horizontal gradient magnitude techniques. The results of the analysis indicate both deep and shallow seated anomalies with structures from depth computation which represented Horst and grabens structures in areas of shallow and deep sediments thickness accumulations. The manual depths computation from Stanley’s 77, Petters half-width, and maximum slope methods indicate shallow depth ranging between 0.4 km–1.5 km between Ekprikang and Calabar, while the Creek town areas vary in depths between 1.6 km – 2.0 km these results collaborated with the horizontal gradient magnitude depths estimates which are more reliable indicating the horst structures with depths between 0.5 km–1.5 km around Calabar toward Ikang and the grabens with depths ranging between 2.0 km – 5.0 km between Creek Town and Okoyong. The study reveals that the Calabar flank sedimentary basin has sediment thickness good enough for further investigation of hydrocarbon deposits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Use Land Cover Change Detection & Urban Sprawl Study: A Case Study on Shimla Tehsil, Himachal Pradesh, India

C. Prakasam, R. Aravinth, Varindar S. Kanwar

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/42185

Land is the most important natural resource containing soil, water, flora & fauna involving total ecosystem. Mapping of Land use and Land cover change is essential for a wide range of applications such as landslide and erosion control, land planning etc. In this research land use change and urban sprawl has been studied for period of 37 years (1980-2017) using remote sensing and GIS techniques in Shimla Tehsil, Himachal Pradesh. The images are layer stacked and supervised classification technique is adopted to the LANDSAT images between 1980 to 2017. Image classification is carried out using Level 1 NRSC Land use classification system. The acquired output is reclassified and change detection was obtained for every consecutive images and overall changes were acquired by comparing 1980 and 2017 satellite imageries. Accuracy assessment was carried out for the year 2017. 100 random reference points were generated from the classified image of 2017 and cross-correlation has been carried out against the unsupervised classification of the same temporal data. Overall classification accuracy of the image is 92% with kappa statistics of 0.87. Change detection was carried out between the year 1980 and 2017. The results obtained indicates a greater change in the growth and declination of forest cover in the study area. Forest cover reduced from 81.58% in 1980 to 60.77% in 2017. Same way Built-up land has increased from 3.59% to nearly 13.64% in the year 2017. Agriculture practice has also increased from 1.91% to 16.51% in the year 2017. Slope area that represents the barren land in the study area is reduced from 12.9% to 9.09% in 2017.

Open Access Original Research Article

River Valley Project and the Developmental Deficiencies in Maithon Reservoir, Bathanbari, West Barddhaman, West Bengal, India

Amal Kumar Ghosh

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/42179

Dams and reservoirs often facilitate the high economic gain in lieu of prolonged initial societal pain. Prevailing ecosystems be it in the minor pool, land, grassland, forest or built up do face the extremity of consequences. Developmental initiatives, which generally modify surficial form and often geared the risk of vulnerability, may not be able to alter the socio-economic status in its very vicinity. Miseries do prevail among the commoners despite the utmost (may or may not be the all-round) endeavour from the government sectors. Sometimes they may either have to share the destinies of developmental refuges or mere onlookers. Lack of consciousness, the apathy of self-introduction from the benefit of government and non-government project retards them from effective harvesting. Their own inabilities of attachment discourage themselves to be intact with these. This write up is a glimpse on the development of Maithon Reservoir on one of the tributaries of the once ‘River of Sorrows’ the  Damodar under Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC), a multipurpose river valley project and its consequences on the life and livelihood pattern of this  nearby village community.