In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the flowing water quality of different rivers flowing through Pune during the spring season, i.e., prior to summer and monsoon. Physico-Chemical monitoring of these rivers of Pune was done from Jan-Mar 2015 to analyse various parameters. A total of 18 Physico-Chemical parameters were analysed for water samples of the rivers at nine different locations. The study revealed the presence of less organic matter in almost all the samples except those from Mula-Mutha rivers. Electrical conductivity measured for these water samples, which is dependent on total dissolved solids (TDS) showed a good correlation between the two quantities. Also, from the present study, it could be concluded that water quality does have a strong bearing on the seasons; as almost all parameters are a function of the climatic conditions in the environment. It may further be inferred that water contamination levels in river waters of Pune were within the limits of pollution level during the spring season.
The city of Port Harcourt, an emerging mega city in the Niger Delta, is grappling with solid waste management as seen by mountains of refuse in some parts of the city. This study examined solid waste management practice in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The study assessed the solid waste management practices in the city through questionnaire administered to households of sampled areas which were Borokiri, Elekahia and Ogbumnuabali. The data collected was analyzed by the use of descriptive statistical tables and multiple bar charts. Most residents dump their refuse by the road side, at common communal storage or via collection vehicles daily or at most once in two weeks. Waste management agency and contractors operate in the city but open dumping and dumping in water ways still persist. The grading of waste disposal system was considered very bad and unsafe. This study identified poor implementation, enforcement and lack of awareness of the waste management policy as the major problems confronting waste management in Port Harcourt. To attain a desired level of waste management in Port Harcourt, the right steps must be taken to create environmental awareness and implement waste management policies.
Aims: Extraction of coal by the opencast (OC) method generates huge amounts of waste materials due to the removal of overlying rock and soil. These materials (overburden) are dumped near the mining site. Thus, anthropogenic landforms like mine pits, spoil dumps, and overburden dumps have been formed, which changes the topography of mining site. Rivers are affected by OC mines, as the alteration of topography disrupts the natural drainage system of the mining site, and the flow of rivers is largely affected. With this background, the objective of the present research work is to identify the nature and extent of stream degeneration by OC coal mining.
Place and Duration of Study: The study area is the Raniganj coalfield (23°32’50”N- 23°50’30” N and 86°39’49” E-87°16’41” E), which is situated in the Paschim Bardhaman District of West Bengal, and the Mugma area (Dhanbad District) of Jharkhand. Coal mining in the coalfield is regulated by Eastern Coalfield Limited or ECL.
Methodology: Streams in the study area were identified from the Survey of India Topographical sheets (1: 50,000 scale) and OC mines were identified from Google Earth images (2016). Stream degeneration was measured by superimposing streams and OC mines in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment.
Results: The study reveals that rapid growth of OC coal mines (total area of OC mines in 1990 was 26.15 sq.km. and 48.52 sq. km in 2016) within the Raniganj Coalfield degenerates the tributaries of the Ajoy, Damodar and Barakar Rivers in study area.
Conclusions: A total of twenty eight catchment basins have been affected by OC coal mines and out of twenty eight, ten catchment basins have more than 90% degeneration. Thus, a sustainable management plan is needed to protect the environment and to maintain the riverine system of the study area.
The study was undertaken with the aim of estimating vulnerability index of shallow aquifer within weathered crystalline regolith that overlies the basement complex rocks of Oke-lla, Osun State, South-western Nigeria. Twenty five vertical electrical soundings adopting Schlumberger configuration were used to investigate the subsurface lithology in an area covering 48 km2. The result revealed four distinct geologic layers which consist of top soil, weathered layer (clayey/sandy saprolite), sand, and fractured/fresh basement rocks. The saprolite, characterized by resistivity in the range of 44 and 471 Ωm with thickness varying from 7 to 16 m, acts as shallow aquifer storing infiltration water. The thickness of the layers above the aquifer, as obtained from quantitative interpretation of resistivity sounding data and estimates of hydraulic conductivities, were used to quantify vulnerability indices. The obtained aquifer vulnerability index shows that, in 70% of the study area, the aquifer has high to extremely-high vulnerability and may be vulnerable to effluents discharge that percolate into the aquifer tapped by hand-dug wells for domestic purposes.
The study of socio-economic status is very important in developing world to know the socio-economic condition of the people living in the rural areas. Such types of study analyze the socio-economic condition of the rural areas and put forward the suggestions to solve the problems prevailing in the rural areas. The present study which is based on field survey which holds from 29th September to 06th October, 2017 enables us in studying the various aspects of the village life. The first-hand experience is how they sustain their livelihood, which kind of difficulties they face for livelihood and other expenses of the household. The total population of both villages is 268 persons in which 66%, 24%, 10% belongs to Upper Cast, Schedule Cast, and Backward Caste. The sex ratio of villages is 985. In this study area 60%, 03%, 7%, 03, 0.86% and 20% persons are involved in farming activities, labors, private sectors, govt. employee, self employed and unemployed. 44 % household has below 2 lakh income, 38% have 2-4 Lakh, 14% have 4-6 lakh and 4% have over 6 lakh. Other parameters like marital status, source of drinking water, education, age and sex composition, social group, family type, land holding, house type, ventilation, fuel type used, livestock are used for study. The analysis of study shows that the socio-economic and overall quality of life of inhabitants is far from satisfactory as the villager of both village are very poor having poor educational status, housing facilities and low income. Therefore, there is an urgent need to launch income generation and educational program and government authority should give emphasis on improving and enhancing the quality of villager's lives.