Open Access Original Research Article

GIS Approach Based Spatio-Temporal Change Analysis of Ground Water Resource: A Case Study from East Burdwan District of West Bengal, India

Sribash Tikader

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/42998

The present paper tries to highlight the Spatio-temporal changing pattern and fluctuation pattern of ground water of Bhatar Block. Above 80% local people of the block are connected with agricultural activity and winter cultivation of the region mostly depends on ground water resource and small part of winter cultivation depends on surface water resource. The depletion rate of ground water resource during study period is very important. A clear warning of unsustainable changes of ground water resource in the area is identified in the present work. The changes of cropping pattern and ever-increasing demand in domestic sector are leading to depletion of ground water resource. Experience gathered during field visit and information collected from local people is that most of the hand pumps remain waterless from the month of December. Though the block recorded an overall decrease of ground water resources, but its level varies spatially from one part of the block to another. The deteriorating ground water trends advocate that water resource management must be taken acutely prior to diminishing water levels. In the final part, an appropriate plan for ground water resource management and encouragement for alternative crop cultivation are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sequence Stratigraphic Framework and Depositional Architecture of Yowi Field, Shallow Offshore, Niger Delta, Nigeria

Prince Suka Momta, Minapuye Isaac Odigi

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/22610

Sequence stratigraphic analysis carried out in Yowi Field by integrating both well logs and biostratigraphic data revealed six depositional sequences within the Agbada Formation of about 7000 ft thick. Three systems tracts identified include highstand systems tract, transgressive systems tract and lowstand systems tracts. The highstand systems tract is majorly stacked regressive 4th - order shoreface sands that occurred in five parasequence sets, whereas the transgressive systems tract is a transgressive unit with both source rock and sealing potentials. The lowstand systems tract shows a boxcar log motif and is identified to be probably channel or barrier bar sand. Major shale units (maximum flooding surfaces) with regional significance mapped are designated MFS1 to MFS7, and tied to intervals with significant biostratigraphic records. This division is relevant to identifying genetic depositional units that contain one or more paleontologically distinct transgressive shale horizons. Six genetic sequences occurred in the field. The transgressive shales represent interruptions in the overall regressive sequence that is related to sea-level rise. Seven of these shales have been mapped and five of them correspond to five of the eleven genetic megasequences that occur delta wide. The ages of the sediments penetrated in the wells were inferred to range from Late middle Miocene to Pliocene using paleontological data. A predominantly marine and deltaic sequences strongly influenced by clastic output from the continent is inferred from both well log and paleontological data analysis. Paleowater depth is interpreted to fluctuate considerably and deposition occurred within a variety of littoral and neritic environments ranging from nearshore barrier sand complexes to fully marine outer shelf mudstones. The sediments are rapidly deposited within the shallow marine realm and reworked into longitudinal bars by wave action, strong longshore drift and tidal effects. The dominant depositional trend observed in the study area shows progradation. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Previously Unrecognized Primary Factors in the Demise of Endangered Torrey Pines: A Microcosm of Global Forest Die-offs

J. Marvin Herndon, Dale D. Williams, Mark Whiteside

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/42301

Objective: Forests worldwide are experiencing die-offs on an unprecedented scale. So too is the endangered Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana. Just as the global toxicity from acid rain was recognized and abatement measures taken, a new undisclosed source of atmospheric toxins from geoengineering rapidly escalated to near-global scale.  Published forensic evidence is consistent with coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste-product of coal-burning, being the main particulate used for geoengineering. The objective of this paper is to disclose unrecognized primary factors arising from geoengineering which underlie the demise of Torrey Pines and global forest die-offs.

Methods: Snow and fog water samples collected after aerial spraying were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and interpreted in light of extensive field observations.

Results: Atmospheric moisture extracts many elements in water-soluble form from aerosolized CFA, including aluminum, which is hazardous to many biota, especially trees. Needles and leaves trap toxin-laden atmospheric moisture, and concentrate it by evaporation. Additionally, toxin-concentrate evaporates on needles and leaves, adversely affecting respiration. Eventually, the re-solubilized toxin-concentrate falls to the ground and enters the root system. This is one of the primary factors which underlie the demise of Torrey Pines and forest die-offs worldwide. Another primary factor is enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation, which is caused, we posit, in part by disruption of atmospheric ozone by aerosolized CFA, which contains ozone-killing chlorine in variable amounts ranging as high as 25,000 µg/g. Together, these primary debilitating factors weaken trees’ natural defenses and make them vulnerable to insects, such as bark beetles, fungal infections, and other biotic factors.

Conclusion: We disclose a natural mechanism whereby trees’ needles and leaves concentrate toxins extracted by moisture from aerosolized coal fly ash used for intentional, man-made weather and climate change. This form of deliberate air pollution must be halted to preserve Earth’s forests.

Open Access Original Research Article

Threats and Opportunities of Ecosystem Services: A Geographical Study of Purbasthali Oxbow Lake

Mehedi Hasan Mandal, Giyasuddin Siddique, Arindam Roy

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/43229

Natural wetlands are most productive and most threatened ecosystems on the Earth’s surface. They provide various ecosystem services beneficial for the local environment and economy. The Purbasthali Oxbow Lake, a palaeochannel of the Bhagirathi, is considered as the case for investigation. This paper attempts to examine the instrumental forces responsible for the deterioration of the ecosystem and the possible measures to be adopted for sustainable utilisation of the ecosystem services by using SWOT analysis. Reduction of surface area and increasing turbid zones has been identified by GIS environment. Ecosystem services like flood control, groundwater recharge, the habitat of biota along with the direct use of the oxbow lake by nearby people in eleven ways have been identified. Human intervention in forms of agricultural expansion, the establishment of brick kilns, illegal trapping and hunting of birds pose serious threats to the health of the lake ecosystem. Present Strength and Weakness and probable Opportunities and Threats associated with the ecosystem services have been identified and sustainable alternatives have been formulated for future development of the area. It can be concluded that despite the various threats posed by the human population, the wetland still has the potentialities to extend various future benefits to the nearby social groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) Mapping Using RS and GIS Techniques: A Case Study of Kumbur River Basin of Kodaikanal Taluk, Dindigul District, Tamilnadu, India

R. Mahesh, R. Baskaran, R. Anbalagan

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/42875

Landslide is one of the disasters which lead to large-scale damage to properties and life. It frequently occurs in hilly regions like Himalaya, Western and Eastern Ghats. In Tamil Nadu, most of the landslides are often seen in Blue Mountains, Kodaikanal and Yercaud, occasionally in the other areas. Kodaikanal hills are facing two major problems viz. urbanization and environmental degradation. In this study, the landslide hazard zonation maps are prepared based on the causative factors of slope instability, namely thick soil accumulation, lithology, geological structure drainage density, slope morphometry, relative relief, land use and land cover and hydrogeological conditions in facet wise by using BIS code: IS 14496 (Part-2) – 1998. As per BIS classification method, Kumbur River Basin area, the distribution pattern of Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) indicates that in the total 82 facets, 3 facets come under very high hazard category, 17 facets come under high hazard category, 40 facets are present in moderate hazards and remaining 25 facets come under range in low hazard.