Open Access Short Communication

Air Pollution, Not Greenhouse Gases: The Principal Cause of Global Warming

J. Marvin Herndon

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/44290

Aim: Gottschalk demonstrated the bump coincident with World War II is a robust feature showing up in eight independent NOAA temperature databases. Without contradicting Gottschalk's conclusion, I consider the broader activities of WW2, especially the manner of altering Earth's delicate energy balance by particulate aerosols and then generalise to post-WW2 global warming. The aim is to present evidence that particulate pollution, not greenhouse gases, is the principal cause of global warming. 

Method: Arrange seemingly unrelated observations into a logical sequence in the mind so that causal relationships become evident.

Results: The World War II wartime particulate-pollution, I submit, had the same global-warming consequence as the subsequent ever-increasing global aerosol particulate-pollution from (1) increases in aircraft and vehicular traffic, and the industrialization of China and India with their smokestacks spewing out smoke and coal fly ash and from (2) coal fly ash covertly jet-sprayed into the region where clouds form on a near-daily, near-global basis. Spraying coal fly ash into the atmosphere not only causes global warming by altering Earth’s delicate thermal balance, but it is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and neurodegenerative disease, as well as being involved in the global catastrophic bee and insect die-off and in forest die-offs worldwide, poisoning the biosphere with mercury, and destroying atmospheric ozone that protects us from the sun’s deadly ultraviolet radiation. The continued deliberate pollution of our atmosphere with aerosolised coal fly ash will inevitably cripple our ability to produce food crops and will cause untold death and destruction, for example, by altering Monsoon weather patterns and by exacerbating wildfires.

Conclusion: The main cause of global warming is particulate pollution, not greenhouse gases. Unless atmospheric modification utilising aerosolised coal fly ash is halted, we drive ever-forward toward the first anthropogenic mass extinction of life on Earth.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Urban Heat Island of San Antonio, Texas, from 1991 to 2010

Daniel C. Boice, Michelle E. Garza, Susan E. Holmes

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/43367

This study aims to investigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect of San Antonio, Texas (USA), and its temporal changes over the time period 1991-2010. It is an extension of previous work that used historical air temperature data from 1946 to 1990. The study was designed to compare 20 years of daily air temperature records (1991-2010) of San Antonio, Texas (USA), with three small surrounding communities; New Braunfels, Poteet, and Boerne. These towns are all within 50 kilometers of San Antonio and have contemporary temperature records. Temperature differences between San Antonio and the surrounding communities indicate changes in the thermal environment due to urbanization. The results are as follows. The daily UHI intensity in autumn and winter is increasing and decreases in the spring and summer seasons. Autumn is the only season where the daily UHI intensity increased and spring is the only season where it decreased during the years 1991-2010. The results for Poteet and Boerne were generally similar. In June during 1997 to 2010, the daily UHI intensity in San Antonio is increasing at an average rate of 0.8°C/decade relative to New Braunfels. These results are generally consistent with previous studies. A physical model of the urban environment is described that is under development to aid in interpreting the results and for city planning. Mitigation strategies as applied to San Antonio are briefly discussed, including green roofs, and urban trees and other natural vegetation. In conclusion, despite mitigating influences, San Antonio continues to have an increasing UHI effect. However, further work is needed to connect to the previous study from 1946 to 1990 and update to the present to strengthen this conclusion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Palynostratigraphic Study of Well-X (Interval 700Ft-2180Ft), Offshore Niger Delta, South-South Nigeria

G. C. Soronnadi-Ononiwu, I. S. Didei

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-31
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/37268

A palynostratigraphic study of Well-X in the Niger Delta was carried out with a gamma ray log and a total of sixteen ditch cutting samples collected at different depth interval (700ft - 2180 ft), the samples were made up of sandstone, sandy shale and shale, depicting that the well penetrated Agbada Formation. The various samples were subjected to palynological analysis, the sixteen samples analysed yielded fair to good amounts of palynomorphs except two samples which had a poor recovery. The recovered palynomorphs include a high percentage of Pollen and Spores, some fresshwater algae (Concentricyst  circulus, Botryoccocus braunii) and a very minute amount of fungal spore, acritarchs and marine forms (Foram lining, Dinocysts, Leiosphaeridia), suggesting that the environment of deposition is terrestrial. A lithostratigraphic framework was established for the sample unit and a palynomorph distribution was constructed. From the distribution chart the percentage of the different palynomorphs (pollen, spores, freshwater algae, fungal spore, acritarch, marine forms and some undifferentiated forms) were calclated and used to generate a biostrati graphic plot that shows the Paleoenvironmental distribution of Well-X interval (700 -2180 ft). From the analysis, the sediments were observed to have been deposited during Early? Late Pliocene times. This interpretation is deduced by the co- occrrences of Stereiporites sp, Nympheapollis clarus and Cypereaopollis sp with Retistephanocolpites gracillis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Surface Runoff Estimation Using SCS-CN Method in Siddheswari River Basin, Eastern India

Hemanta Sutradhar

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/44076

The Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is one of indirect methods of runoff estimation developed by National Resources Conservation Service (NRSC), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The main objectives of the present study are to estimate surface runoff, runoff coefficient of the Siddheswari river basin using SCS-CN method and to predict hydrological scenario of the basin based on the surface runoff conditions with the aid of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS).The result shows that the very high annual runoff found in the middle and lower catchment and high runoff concentrated in southern portion of the catchment mainly because of lack of vegetation and uncovered surface but the low runoff concentrated in the middle-northern tip of the basin due dense vegetation cover.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling the Relationship between Urban Growth Modes and the Thermal Environment - A Case Study of the Barasat Municipality, West Bengal

Kasturi Mukherjee, Pannalal Das

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2018/44047

The transformation of the rural landscape through industrialisation, urbanisation and rural-urban migration contributes to the physical growth of cities using ‘built-up’ development, known as urban sprawl. Urban sprawls are often associated with the increase of Land Surface Temperature (LST) in both magnitude and spatial extent which modifies the urban thermal environment, attributable to a phenomenon known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI). Not all the urban growth is sprawl, and not all urban growth is necessarily detrimental to the environment. Measuring urban growth instead of sprawl, allows us to quantify the amount of land that has been converted to urban land use. In this project, three major types of urban growth, i.e. infilling, edge expansion, and leapfrog development have been identified and quantified from the built-up dynamics. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Operational Land Imager/Thermal Infrared Sensor (OLI/TIRS) images were used to estimate LST, and to extract the built-up area for this study. To understand the impact of these urban growth modes on the thermal environment, two methodologies have been adapted: i) GIS-based sectoral-buffer analysis, and, ii) Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR). They analyse and quantify the relative importance of urban growth modes in controlling the changing pattern of LST. The methods have been applied in the Barasat municipality, West Bengal, India. The study reveals that different types of urban expansions have different effects on the thermal environment. Edge expansion is the most important factor in determining LST change. This study may provide information contributing to a better understanding of urban development. Lowering the heat island effect may be possible through well-managed urban growth.